The power reduction is done by such means as absorption, reflection, diffusion, scattering, reflection, diffraction, and dispersion, etc.Optical attenuators usually work by absorbing the light, like sunglasses absorb extra light energy.They typically have a working wavelength range in which they absorb all light energy equally.They should not reflect the light or scatter the light in an air gap since that could cause unwanted back reflection in the fiber system. Another type of attenuator utilizes a length of the high-loss optical fiber, that operates upon its input optical signal power level in such a way that its output signal power level is less than the input level.Optical Attenuator Performance:Amount of attenuation and insertion loss: insertion loss and the attenuation amount of the optical attenuator is an important indicator of the amount of attenuation of the optical attenuator indicator to actually insertion loss, and attenuation amount of the variable attenuator addition, there are separate indicators insertion loss, high quality can be variable attenuator insertion loss 1.0dB or less, in general, common variable attenuator of the index is less than 2.5dB can be used. When the actual selection adjustable attenuator insertion loss as low as possible.Optical attenuator accuracy: attenuation accuracy is an important indicator of the optical attenuator.Typically mechanical type variable optical attenuator for attenuation accuracy of ± 0.1 times that amount. Its size depends on the degree of processing of precision mechanical components. High attenuation accuracy fixed optical attenuator. Typically the higher the attenuation accuracy, the higher the price.Return loss: an important indicator of the impact of system performance in optical device parameters return loss.The retroreflective optical network system effects are well known. Optical attenuator Return loss is the light energy incident on the optical attenuator and the attenuator light energy incident along the road reflecting ratio.For now, you can understand how fiber optics attenuators work, and you also are aware of the importance of them for your fiber infrastructure. That’s why Beyondtech has them available at our several distribution locations for 24 hours shipping and they were carefully tested each one of them for your reliability and for a complete solution-oriented approach.
I wrote a blog post some days ago on the different types of connectors available, which sparked a great deal of feedback and discussion, demonstrating how important the whole topic is to both fiber installers and network planners alike. Thanks again to everyone around the world that contributed, both directly on the PPC’s blog and through various social groups.
To recap, I covered SC, LC, FC, ST and MTP/MPO connectors, and looking through the comments I thought it would be beneficial to focus on one area that the original post deliberately didn’t cover – the differences between Angled Physical Contact (APC) and Ultra Physical Contact (UPC) connectors. Beside one having a green body and the other being colored blue, the different ways they both treat light is crucial in planning a network, as several readers pointed out.
To help us understand all this jargon, let’s look back at why the original Flat Fiber Connector evolved into the Physical Contact (PC) connector and then onto UPC and APC.
The primary issue with Flat Fiber connectors is that when two of them are mated it naturally leaves a small air gap between the two ferrules; this is partly because the relatively large end-face of the connector allows for numerous slight but significant imperfections to gather on the surface. This is not much use for single mode fiber cables with a core size of just 8-9 µm, hence the necessary evolution to Physical Contact (PC) Connectors.
The PC is similar to the Flat Fiber connector but is polished with a slight spherical (cone) design to reduce the overall size of the end-face. This helps to decrease the air gap issue faced by regular Flat Fiber connectors, resulting in lower Optical Return Loss (ORL), with less light being sent back towards the power source.
Building on the convex end-face attributes of the PC, but utilizing an extended polishing method creates an even finer fiber surface finish: bringing us the Ultra Physical Contact (UPC) connector. This results in a lower back reflection (ORL) than a standard PC connector, allowing more reliable signals in digital TV, telephony and data systems, where UPC today dominates the market. Most engineers and installers believe that any poor performance attributed to UPC connectors is not caused by the design, but rather poor cleaving and polishing techniques. UPC connectors do have a low insertion loss, but the back reflection (ORL) will depend on the quality of the fiber surface and, following repeat matings/unmatings, it will begin to deteriorate.
So what the industry needed was a connector with low back reflection, that could sustain repeated matings/unmatings without ORL degradation. Step forward the Angled Physical Contact (APC) connector.
Although PC and UPC connectors have a wide range of applications, some instances require return losses in the region of one-in-a-million (60dB). Only APC connectors can consistently achieve such performance. This is because adding a small 8° angle to the end-face allows for even tighter connections and smaller end-face radii. Combined with that, any light that is redirected back towards the source is actually reflected out into the fiber cladding, again by virtue of the 8° angled end-face.
It is true that this slight angle on each connector brings with it rotation issues that Flat, PC and UPC connectors simply don’t have. It is also the case that the three aforementioned connectors are all inter-mateable, whereas the APC isn’t. So, why then is the APC connector so important in fiber optics?
The uses of APC connectors
The best feedback examples from my previous blog came from people experienced with Fttxand Radio Frequency (RF) applications. The advance in analogue fiber optic technology has driven demand for it to replace more traditional coaxial cable (copper). Unlike digital signals (which are either ON or OFF), the analogue equipment used in applications such as DAS, FTTH and CCTV is highly sensitive to changes in signal, and therefore requires minimal back reflection (ORL).
APC ferrules offer return losses of -65dB. In comparison a UPC ferrule is typically not more than -55dB. This may not sound like a major difference, but you have to remember that the decibel scale is not linear. To put that into context a -20dB loss equates to 1% of the light being reflected back, -50dB leads to nominal reflectance of 0.001%, and -60dB (typical of an APC ferrule) equates to just 0.0001% being reflected back. This means that whilst a UPC polished connector will be okay for a variety of optical fiber applications, only an APC will cope with the demands of complex and multi-play services.
The choice is even more important where connector ports in the distribution network might be left unused, as is often the case in FTTx PON network architectures. Here, optical splitters are used to connect multiple subscriber Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Optical Network Terminals (ONTs). This is not a problem with unmated APC connections where the signal is reflected into the fiber cladding, resulting in typical reflectance loss of -65dB or less. The signal from an unmated UPC connector however, will be sent straight back towards the light source, resulting in disastrously high loss (more than 14dB), massively impeding the splitter module performance.
Picking the right physical contact connector
Looking at current technology, it’s clear that all of the connector end-face options mentioned in this blog post have a place in the market. Indeed, if we take a sidestep across to Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) applications, this can be terminated with a sharp craft knife and performance is still deemed good enough for use in the high-end automotive industry. When your specification also needs to consider cost and simplicity, not just optical performance, it’s hard to claim that one connector beats the others. Therefore whether you choose UPC or APC will depend on your particular need. With those applications that call for high precision optical fiber signaling, APC should be the first consideration, but less sensitive digital systems will perform equally well using UPC. Fiber-Mart can supply many kinds fiber connectors. If you have any questions or requirement of fiber connectors，welcome to contact us: email@example.com.
What is ODC Connector?
ODC connectors are designed for the fiber to antenna (FTTA) applications. The ODC product range incorporates precision-machined rugged brass housings with two or four optical terminations in both singlemode and multimode fibers. The environmentally sealed, fixed and free connectors are supported by a range of highly crush resistant, high tensile strength “tactical” style cables.ODC fiber optic connector can with stand harsh environmental conditions when being used in outdoor applications. They are used for data and telecommunications in mobile radio, process, utility and traffic automation.
ODC Fiber Optic Cable System
The ODC connectors, together with the support optical cable, are becoming the standard interface specified in 3G, 4G and WiMax Base Station remote radios and Fiber-to-the-Antenna applications.ODC fiber optic patch cables with extremely robust outdoor connector are designed to withstand harsh environment such as mechanical loads, high thermal exposure, and demanding environments like rain, salt and splash water. It is known for their ease of installation and highest operation safety due to the robust and ruggedized design. ODC military grade cables are installation-friendly for fixed or mobile applications and transmit reliably data over long distances under severe environmental conditions.
The ODC cable assembly is based on the N Type RF Coax connector. The product, however, is not limited to the above applications. It is also in the oil, wind power, rail transport and heavy machinery of digital information transmission and other areas play a strong role.The ODC cable assemblies have passed tests like salt mist, vibration and shock and meet protection class IP67. They are well suited for industrial and Aero-space and Defense applications.
We believe there is no country in the world in which ODC assemblieshave not been installed yet. There is no other RRH interface which is used more often and which was chosen by more system vendors. The success comes from the fact that ODC is an extremely robust outdoor connector which withstands all installation hazards – and most importantly – does not permit handling errors. ODC makes mobile networks more reliable and guarantees 100 % performance.
Fiber-Mart provides all types of outdoor fiber connectors. These connectors meet the highest quality and robustness standards, and they offer reliability and flexibility for outdoor applications.For purchasing more high quality fiber optical connectors with low cost or for more products’ information, please contact us: firstname.lastname@example.org