Choosing a Fiber Optic Cleaver

The old adage, “You get what you pay for” applies to most purchases that you make in life. Fiber optic cleavers are no exception!

When choosing a fiber optic cleaver there are two types of devices to consider:
• Precision Cleavers – These are used to prepare fiber for fusion splicing. This is a process in which a separate tool called a fusion splicer or fusion splicing machine uses a powerful electric arc to fuse (or splice) two fibers together. Precision cleavers also provide superior results when used to prepare fibers for mechanical splicing.
• Mechanical Cleavers – A mechanical cleaver is used to prepare fiber for mechanical splicing only. Instead of fusing, mechanical splices rely on mechanical gripping mechanisms to hold the two fibers together. Mechanical cleavers are not considered accurate enough to prepare fibers for fusion splicing. That being said, even low cost mechanical cleavers have their place.
This blog will help you decide which type of cleaver is best suited to your needs and budget.
Precision Cleavers Vs. Mechanical Cleavers
A Closer Look
Before an optical fiber can be spliced to another fiber, the end of the fiber must be prepared prior to splicing. The fiber endface must be cleaved, which means breaking (cleaving) the fiber in a precise manner that produces a cleaved surface with the proper geometry and smoothness to ensure optimum signal throughput after the splice is completed. The goal is to minimize light scattering and back reflection at the juncture of the two fibers.
The degree to which such accuracy can be achieved depends on whether you are using a cleaver meant for fusion splicing (precision cleaver) or mechanical splicing (mechanical cleaver).
Precision Cleavers
Precision cleavers are capable of producing a near perfect cleave in which the cleaved endface of the fiber is at a 90 degree angle relative to the length of the fiber, in other words after cleaving the fiber endface is perpendicular relative to the length of the fiber. Generally, this is the ideal angle at which to fuse two fibers together. Some precision cleavers are designed to produce cleave angles other than 90 degrees, such as may be required for specialized applications involved in the manufacture of semiconductors and laser diodes. Angled cleavers are also sometimes used with mechanical splices to minimize back reflectance.
In either case, the goal is to achieve consistent cleave angles within 1 degree of accuracy, this can only be achieved using a Precision Cleaver.
Operation
When using a precision cleaver, the technician simply places the fiber in the device and clamps it down in the correct position. The tool then completes the cleaving operation automatically. There is no chance that the operator will apply the wrong amount of pressure to score and snap the fiber. The precision cleaver does it all, with accuracy, repeatability and reliability.
Applications
• Single mode and Multimode Networks
• Telecom and Datacom
• Component Assembly
• High Strength Splicing Applications
• Splice-On Connectors
Advantages
• Cleaves both single mode and multimode fiber
• Produces high precision cleaves that mitigate signal loss
• Provides reliability and repeatability
• Ribbon splicing option
Disadvantages
• Cost – Relatively high cost compared to mechanical cleavers. Typical prices range from $500 to $1,000 or more.
Mechanical Cleavers
If your application allows splicing fibers by mechanical means (as opposed to fusing them together) you can probably get by with a relatively inexpensive mechanical cleaver. Mechanical cleavers are used to prepare fibers for mechanical splices, which employ mechanical gripping mechanisms to hold the two fibers together. Mechanical splices may also use Index Matching Gel between adjoining fibers to help reduce back reflection and signal loss due to irregularities in the fiber endfaces. Mechanical cleavers are also known as pocket cleavers, field cleavers, beaver cleavers and staple-type cleavers.
Operation
A notable characteristic of a mechanical cleaver is its long leaf spring. Typically. the fiber is held in position on the spring by a retainer while a blade is brought into contact with the fiber to scratch (score) the fiber. The technician then bends the leaf spring, causing the fiber to break along the score line. A skilled technician can achieve a cleave angle within 2 degrees of accuracy.
Applications
• Mechanical Splices
• Mechanical Connectors
• Multimode Networks
• Premise and Campus Installations
• Local Datacom Multimode Networks
• Other multimode applications not subject to tight loss budgets
Advantages
• Cost – Affordable enough to put one in every tool box. Prices range from $100 to $200.
• Low Maintenance – Simple mechanical design
Disadvantages
• Less Accurate – Provides less precision and repeatability when compared to a precision cleaver. Not suitable for preparing fiber for fusion splicing.
• Multimode Only – Not suitable for cleaving single mode fiber.
Summary
If you are required to do fusion splicing, there is no question about it – you need a precision cleaver. If you are doing mechanical splicing only, you can likely get by with a lower cost mechanical cleaver.
Be aware that a precision cleaver can perform both types of cleaving, allowing you to minimize signal loss in both single mode and multimode networks. Although purchasing a precision cleaver involves a higher upfront cost, it may prove to be the best value in the long term.
Cleaver Specifications (Typical)
Precision Cleavers – Models are available for use with 250-µm to 900-µm coated fibers. V-groove alignment and adjustable cleave lengths can provide consistent cleave angles of 90 Degrees +/- 0.5 Degrees. Precision cleavers are available with diamond blades, with 16 or more blade positions that provide up to 3,000 cleaves per position. Precision cleavers can be purchased with fixtures that enable the cleaving of ribbon fibers and can accommodate 2 to 24 fibers.
Mechanical Cleavers – Models are available for use with 80µm to 200µm fibers or 900µm buffer or 250µm coated fiber. Mechanical cleavers provide cleave lengths of 2 to 20mm. These cleavers are available with ceramic blades that offer 1,000 cleaves or more, or carbide blades that can provide 5,000 cleaves or more. Mechanical cleavers typically include a graduated scale to indicate various cleave lengths.

Why Use Splice On Connectors?

Prior to the introduction of fusion splicers, it was common for fiber optic installers to hand-polish connectors in order to minimize optical loss. For each connector, the process involved:
• Stripping the field fiber and using epoxy to glue the fiber within a connector ferrule.
• Slowly and meticulously polishing the fiber endface by using progressively finer grits of diamond “sandpaper.”
The objective was to achieve a smooth endface surface with the proper geometry required to minimize insertion loss. Even with all that effort, hand polished connectors fell short of factory polished connectors which had lower optical loss.
The fiber optics industry searched for a simpler and faster way to connectorize fiber. The first “solution” was to use factory polished connectors that could be purchased with attached lengths of fiber optic cable (pigtails). The idea was that the installer could simply fusion splice the end of the pigtail to the field fiber and be done with it. No hand polishing was required.
Cable Management and Space Considerations with Pigtails
While splicing connectorized pigtails provided a faster alternative to hand polishing, one drawback was that the splice required an external splice protection sleeve that had to be installed in a splice tray within a splice cabinet. So, what seemed like a simple and elegant solution turned out to be more complicated in terms of cable management.
Mechanical Connectors
Mechanical connectors allowed anybody to be able to put on a connector with the use of specific tools and simple termination procedures, but because of the reflectance of the matching gel, along with the mating of the ferrules, you will achieve around -40dB reflectance. Also, most mechanical connectors available today require the purchase of a brand specific termination kit. These can be quite expensive. The connectors can also be expensive, with some costing as much as +$17.00 per connector. So, when you figure the cost of the kit and the connectors and then figure in the back reflection of the connection, mechanical connectors are a good choice to get a damaged connector replaced quickly to reduce network down time, but they are not a good permanent solution. It is highly recommended that the mechanical connector be replaced with a factory polished pigtail or splice on connector during the next service window.
The SOC Solution
More recently, splice on connectors (SOC’s) were developed to address the cable management and space considerations of connectorized pigtails. Instead of a long pigtail, the body of the SOC contains a short fiber stub (essentially a micro pigtail) to which the field fiber can be fused. Because the splice protection sleeve is contained within the connector assembly underneath the boot, there is no need for a splice tray, splice chips or splice cabinet.
SOC Advantages
Simplified Cable Management
As explained above, SOC’s greatly simplify cable management for any fiber optic network. SOC’s require no extra rack space and eliminate the need for slack cable management. This advantage is especially important for data centers and other high-density applications.
More Installer Options
Installers no longer have to rely solely on traditional pigtails or mechanical splicing to achieve quick connections in the field. SOC’s are fast to install, with the added advantage of achieving low-loss connectivity.
Easy to Install
Installing an SOC is essentially a three-step process:
• The installer slides the SOC connector components onto the field fiber. The components include a heat-shrinkable protection sleeve and connector boot.
• Using a splicer specific SOC holder on the fusion splicer, the installer places the field fiber adjacent to the exposed fiber stub on the splice on connector. The technician then fuses the field fiber to the fiber stub that protrudes from the back of the ferrule.
• After fusing, the installer heat-shrinks the protection sleeve and slides the connector boot into place.
Successful Splice Notification
All current model fusion splicers notify the installer when a successful splice has been achieved. This eliminates guesswork, enabling SOC’s to be installed by novices and experienced technicians alike. If you are in the market for a fusion splicer, be sure to choose a model that is capable of splicing SOC’s!
Cost Efficient
The prices of fusion splicers have come down significantly in recent years, which has contributed to the popularity of SOC’s. Although SOC’s cost more than standard epoxy and polish connectors, SOC’s save money because they are faster to install and require less technician training or expertise.
SOC Applications
• Data center installations
• Multi-dwelling unit (MDU) networks
• Campus environments
• Outside plant
• FTTDesk
• Cable TV backbone
• Anywhere that a fast, low loss connection is required. .
The 900um Cheetah SOC from FIS led the pack in being one of the first SOC’s brought to market.
• Return loss: APC >-65dB, UPC >-55dB and MM -35dB (typical)
• 20+ styles available: SM, MM(OM1 & OM2), 10Gig (OM3 & OM4)
• Available connector holders are compatible with many industry leading splicers including (but not limited to) FIS, AFL, Sumitomo and Fitel fusion splicers
• 900um strain relief boot protects splice point for easy cable management
Armordillo SOC
This splice on connector from FIS features a tough housing, an extended crimp sleeve and strong Kevlar bond to achieve superior pull strength.
• Termination for 1.6mm, 2.0mm and 3.0mm cable
• Return loss: APC >-65dB, UPC >-55dB and MM -35dB (typical)
• 20+ styles available: SM, MM (OM1 & OM2), 10Gig (OM3 & OM4)
• Extended crimp sleeve provides industry leading pull strength
• Jacket insert to fit 1.6mm, 2.0mm, or 3.0mm cable with the same connector package
SOC Capable Fusion Splicers
FIS offers a wide range of fusion splicers from the industry’s leading manufacturers including Fitel, AFL, Sumitomo and FlS. SOC capable fusion splicers are also available from the FIS Rental Department. Both desktop and hand held models are available.

What is the Purpose of a Power Meter & Light Source?

What is a Power Meter & Light Source?
Power Meter & Light Source is a low cost way to certify optical fiber. These two pieces of test equipment are used to measure fiber optic light continuity, loss and lastly the actual strength of the optical signal.
Signal Loss
In fiber optics when a beam of light which carries a signal goes through the optical fiber the strength of that beam of light will diminish over distance. This means the signal strength becomes weaker. This loss of light power will affect the fiber optic network in a negative way. The loss of light power or attenuation of the optical fiber is caused by two issues, scattering and absorption of the light source. If the degradation is too great then performance of the network will be affected.
The following can be the cause of signal loss:
• Tight Bends in the Cable
• Dirty or Improperly Cleaned Connectors
• Too much Stress on the Cable During Installation
• Poorly Installed Connectors
• Improper Splicing Technique
• Poor Cable Quality
What Equipment is Needed to Conduct a Power Meter & Light Source Test?
A Power Meter and Light Source are a pretty simple piece of test equipment to use. An installer needs basic knowledge for cleaning fiber optic ends. The actual connection of the fiber to the test equipment is fairly straightforward. If you are familiar with handling fiber optics the test is very easy. If you are new to fiber optics this test should not present any issues. A simple short video explaining the test should be all you need.
Why use an OTDR in Place of a Power Meter & Light Source?
The Power Meter and Light Source are more limited than an OTDR. A Power Meter can only measure the received optical power. The OTDR can not only tell you there is a break is in the fiber, it can also measure the distance between the test point and the break. In addition, it is able to give you reflectance for each connector. Even though the OTDR can reveal additional information, the Power Meter and Light Source are still an important piece of optical fiber test equipment and their importance should not be underestimated when testing an optical fiber network.
How Does A Power Meter & Light Source Work?
By attaching a reference cable to the light source, power can be measured at the opposite end of the fiber optic cable. The signal is sent from the light source down the fiber. These two pieces of test equipment are used to measure fiber optic light continuity, loss, and lastly the actual quality of the signal. In short, it measures the power of the optical signal that has passed through the fiber cable from the light source.
Steps to Using a Power Meter and Light Source
Using the Power Meter & Light Source to test a fiber optic cable is relatively easy.
• First take the reference cord end face and clean it with 99% reagent grade isopropyl alcohol and lint free fiber optic wipes.
• Next plug the reference cord into the light source and select the wavelength you are testing. When testing a multimode cord attach a mandrel wrap to strip out the higher modes of light that can interfere with the test results. A mandrel wrap is not necessary for singlemode.
• Clean the other end of the reference cord and insert that end into the Power Meter. Now zero out the reference cord by hitting the “zero” button. After zeroing out, do not unplug the reference cord from the Light Source. Take the cord to be tested and clean one end, then attach the connector adapter. Clean the other end of the patch cord.
• Remove the reference cord from the power meter and attach to the test cord adapter, insert the other end of the test cord into the power meter. The reading on the power meter will give you the loss on the connector mated to the reference cord only. To get the loss reading on the other end simply unplug the test cord from the reference cord and switch the connectors. You have now completed the one cord reference test.
• For a two cord reference test attach a connector adapter to the reference cord and insert the other end to the power meter. Zero out the power meter. You are now ready to get a loss reading for the entire cord being tested.
• Take the test cord and clean both ends with the cleaning alcohol and wipes. Connect the test cord in between the two reference cords. The power meter will show a full cord reading for total power loss. Record your loss as needed.
What to Look for when Purchasing a Power Meter and Light Source
The Power Meter and Light Source or Optical Loss Test Set are must have tools for the fiber installer. While they are fairly simple tools to operate, care should be taken in choosing the Power Meter and Light Source as there are many models to choose from.
• Is the equipment easy to use or does it require a huge manual?
• Operation of this piece of equipment should almost be intuitive.
• Appearance is important. Is it easy to hold?
• There should be a minimal amount of buttons on the unit.
• Are screens easy to read? Is it backlit?
• Is the Power Meter and Light source calibrated?
• Does the manufacturer calibrate their equipment?
• Can they provide a calibration certificate traceable to NIST standards?
• Does the unit come with a protective carry case?
• What about battery life?
• Are adapter caps included?
• Does the kit include a dual wavelength multimode or single mode light source?
• Does it come with interchangeable adapters allow flexibility with reference cords?
As with any fiber optic test equipment, know the manufacturer. Find a reputable company that will stand behind their equipment. If you have questions about your choice, call or email the company and talk with a technical person that can help you decide which piece of test equipment best suits your needs. Remember, there are many manufacturers out there in the marketplace. Consider only those with reputable firms that have a good track record. One that can service and maintain your equipment if needed.

Why do I need to use fusion splice protection sleeves?

Before we begin to dive into that question let’s get a brief understanding on what a fusion splicer is. If you are in the fiber optic world you will definitely know what a fusion splicer is and most likely will have used one or will be using one. A fusion splicer is a machine that fuses or welds two different pieces of fiber optic glass cables together to become one with an electric current also known as an arc. Most fusion splicers have an attached shrink oven that the protection sleeve is placed into to complete the process. Some splicers do not have an attached shrink oven and an external separate shrink oven will be needed for the application. As mentioned, fiber optic cable is made of glass and glass, especially how thin optical fiber is, will be very brittle and can very easily break. When this fusion of glass is completed, this is where our friend, the fusion protection sleeve steps in.

You may be asking, what is a fusion splice protection sleeve? Well that is a great question! A fusion protection sleeve is used to protect the fusion splice where the two separate pieces of fiber optic cable have been joined into one. A protection sleeve is made up of three parts: An outer shrinkable tube made of heat shrink plastic, an inner tube or fiber tube where the fiber is placed, and a strength member, either made of stainless steel or ceramic, more on this later. The protection sleeve ensures a consistent and reliable means of protection of the fiber when heat is applied from the splicer oven or external oven. Have you ever broke an arm or bone or knew someone who has? When this happens a cast is applied to the broken area. The cast can be interpreted as the protection sleeve and the broken bone area is the fiber optic cable. The cast protects the broken bone as the protection sleeve protects the fused fiber cable.

Fusion protection sleeves can be broken down into basically two categories: single splice protection sleeves and ribbon splice protection sleeves and will most commonly be 40mm or 60mm in length and are normally made of a clear outer tube so you can view the fiber when inside the sleeve for regular inspection and/or maintenance to the cable inside. A single splice protection sleeve is just that, a sleeve that will accommodate a single piece of fused fiber. A ribbon splice sleeve can accommodate multiple fiber splices ranging from 2-12 fibers inside the sleeve. As mentioned above, protection sleeves will either have a stainless steel or ceramic strength member that runs the entire length on the side of the protection sleeve and there is a definitive reason there are two different types of strength members. Fiber optic cable uses light to transmit data and light and glass to not conduct electricity. If a contractor is specifically using fiber optic cable in the application there should be no worry in using a protection sleeve that contains a stainless steel strength member. On the other hand if the fiber optic application will be next to or near any copper/conductive type material, the contractor may consider a splice sleeve that contains the ceramic strength member so there is no electrical disturbance between the copper cable or conductive material and the strength member.

Before the splice sleeve is applied to the fusion splice and the cable, the splice sleeve itself should be inspected before installation. This is done to ensure the sleeve is free from deformity and is clean both on the outside and the inside of the sleeve. The inspection and cleaning process is vital in any fiber optic application ranging from cleaning connector ends to making sure your equipment is clean from any contaminants. Not cleaning your fiber optic accessories and equipment is the leading cause of attenuation in the cable. Attenuation is the measurable loss of signal strength along the cable and it is measured in decibels. Inspecting the inside of the sleeve to make sure it is free of contaminates along with cleaning the fiber before installing the sleeve is a good practice as the slightest bit of contaminates could and most likely will cause attenuation. When not using the sleeves, they should be stored in a clean plastic zip bag for protection during storage.

Aside from the importance of cleaning there are other factors to consider before your splice sleeve installation. As mentioned earlier, protection sleeves are used when fusion splicing. Your fusion splicer has many different settings that can be chosen when splicing and may differ from manufacturer to manufacturer. Fiber tension is one setting that may need to be adjusted in this process. Improper fiber tension can result in an improper or uneven shrink when the protection sleeve is placed in the shrink oven. It is essential to maintain proper tension on the cable and not to twist the fiber when placing in and removing from the oven.

Another factor to consider in this process is actually the type of cable you’re using to splice with. Some fiber optic cables contain a gel similar to petroleum jelly that is contained on the inside jacket of the fiber. This gel will need to be cleaned off of the cable with a special degreaser wipe to ensure the proper fit and finish of the application of the splice sleeve. Inspecting the splice sleeve after it is removed from the heating oven is another good practice as the heat setting may be to high resulting in a split in the sleeve itself or the heat may be to low resulting in an improper shrink to the sleeve. If either of these are observed you may need to adjust the heat setting on the oven itself.

Once all of these installation practices are meet, the protection sleeve along with the attached cable are usually placed in a splice tray. A splice tray is a tray or container that prevents spliced fibers from being damaged or misplaced after splicing. If the cable and protection sleeve will be placed in a splice tray the protection sleeve should have the strength member pointing down, you should not be able to see the strength member when looking at a protection sleeve when it is in a splice tray.

As small as the fusion protection sleeve may be, it is a huge importance to the fusion splicing world of fiber optics. When all of these practices are met, you will be successful when you decide to try your hand at fusion splicing with the added protection of fusion protection sleeves added to your fiber optic cable installation arsenal.

What are the advantages of factory vs. field terminated assemblies?

When looking at terminating fiber optic connectors for a job there are several factors that are taken into account to help decide which way is best. There are field polish connectors in which some form of epoxy (glue) is used to hold the fiber in place. With this one, you have to polish it in the field as well which if you haven’t ever done it, can be very difficult. There are also factory polished style connectors that can be mechanical connectors, pigtails, splice on connectors or pre-terminated cable assemblies. The mechanical connectors have a piece of fiber already in them and you just have to align your field fiber up to the fiber inside the back of the connector. This can be difficult or take some time to master. A fiber pigtail consists of a piece of fiber optic cable that has a connector on one side and no connector on the other side. These can either be fusion spliced to another piece of fiber, or run through conduit and terminated at the other end. The alternate solution would be to have your cable assemblies built to the length that is needed with optical connectors already installed on them in a factory setting. Let’s look at some different qualities to see how this will be beneficial.

Polish Quality
All connectors whether installed in the field or in a factory have to be polished in order to work properly and get the end result of passing a signal over the fiber optic cable. So let’s look at the two different ways to polish. First, you can always hand polish a connector. In this process, you will use a polish puck, rubber durometer pad and a glass plate along with polish film to achieve a suitable connector endface. There are some technicians that have been doing this for a long time and could get close to a perfect polish on the ferrule endface. Not everyone can do a good hand polish. There are several factors that come into play and can cause various results on your finished optical connectors such as the amount of pressure applied while doing your figure 8 on the polish paper. When in a dusty area debris can get on the polish film, causing a connector to be ruined. See how little things in this process can affect the end of the connector and how long it takes to get a good connector? If a connector is bad due to being over polished, pitted or even shattered you will have to repeat the whole process.

On the other hand a factory polish is finished using a polish machine in a manufacturing facility. The amount of pressure is the same. Polish machines have holders that allow many connectors to be polished at once to save time. The procedures used have been honed over time to be the most efficient which helps to produce high quality polishes. In a factory all connectors are checked to a higher standard and are not allowed to be shipped until checked by quality control where they will be scoped and tested. This gives each and every factory connector a perfect outcome.

Plug & Play
When getting factory terminated fiber optic cable assemblies cut to length you are providing yourself with the simple concept of plug and play. This means all you have to do is run your link and then just plug the connectors into your rack, switch or connection point. This not only saves time on your cable installation but also will save you in labor and installation costs. Plug and play is not always a possibility due to restrictions in conduit size or the number of bends that are required to go through. We get that and that is why there are several ways that a connector can be put on a cable. All we are saying is, imagine if you get a house hold item such as a toaster; would you rather take the toaster out of the box, plug it into an outlet and have toast in a matter of minutes? On the opposite side; would you like to get a toaster that does not have a cord and you have to go find all the tools that are needed? Now you have to refresh yourself on how to strip a power cord so you can put a plug on one end. Then you have to open the toaster and get your other end prepped. Point being, we all like to just pull things out of the box, plug them in and away we go.

Pulling Eyes
What is easier than getting a cable that has all the connectors on it and a way to pull it in place? Essentially this is what you have with a pulling eye installed. All a pulling eye is, is a loop that is connected to the Kevlar of a cable assembly. Why the Kevlar? Kevlar, when you have multiple pieces stranded together is not only strong but almost impossible to break. It does not stretch when pulled on and it keeps the fiber cable from stretching. We have had instances when cable has not been pulled by the Kevlar, instead pulling on the jacket of the fiber. The jacket of the cable will stretch and eventually with too much pressure it will break. Also, when a jacket is pulled, when released you get what is called a growing effect of the fiber. Meaning it looks like kids through their growth spurts. The jacket after being released shrinks to try and get back to its original form. When this happens the fibers that are inside will come out the end making it look like your fiber is extending. Not only is this bad for the jacket that protects the fibers but it can also cause breaks in your cable that will not be realized until it is tested. So when pulling fiber cable, always make sure you are pulling correctly using the Kevlar. It’s better to just have a pulling eye installed and save yourself a huge headache.

Higher Overall Quality
When looking at fiber optic connectors there are several factors to consider. Looking above at all the advantages of a factory polish termination along with pulling eyes, you can see how it can save you money and time to go with the factory built cables. Now if you do have to install connectors in the field, the alternative would be to get connectors that are already factory polished such as the ones on a fiber pigtail used when fusion splicing. When doing a job, no one is purposely trying to have bad connectors. Factory polished connectors whether they are pigtails, mechanical connectors or pre-terminated fibers all have the high quality that you will need to show your customer that you take pride in the work you do and want to use the best possible connectors available. Nothing is better than a connector that is polished by a machine, and then put through a rigorous testing phase before they can be considered done and ready.

What Are Some of the Different Fiber Optic Cable Jacket Ratings

There are several parts that make up a fiber optic cable; starting with the core, to the cladding, followed by the coating, the strength member and lastly the outer jacket. The outer jacket is the cover that gives protection and shielding, especially to the optical fibers. Whether it is meant to be indoor/outdoor, UV rated or armored, the jacket is what keeps the fiber protected and useful. Above all of these, the outer jacket is the first layer of protection to the fiber so it can withstand different conditions such as fire, moisture, chemicals, and stress during installations and maneuvering.

The National Electrical Code (NEC) has a classification system for optical fiber cables. The system specifies the requirements regarding how the fiber cables will endure under fire conditions. These requirements concentrate on how these cables can add a dangerous amount of fuel and smoke and transmit fire from one place to another.

Plenum

OFNP – Optical Fiber Non-conductive Plenum – refers to the specific fire code rating of cable that is flame resistant and emits the least toxic fumes or smoke when burned. Plenum rated cables have a higher fire rating and are for both commercial and residential use. They are considered the safest rated cable among jacket types. These cables are primarily used in ducts or pathways for heated and cooled return airflows. These spaces are usually above a ceiling or below a floor that serves as heated or cooled inhabited areas.

Plenum cables are purposely built with a jacket that gives off low amounts of smoke and that is flame retardant. Being able to deter the spread of flames and toxic fumes are the main uses for this jacket rating. The word plenum refers to the space in which air is circulated by a HVAC system. Drop ceilings and raised floors are perfect for the application. Plenum cables still use PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) in the construction of the plenum jacket but special additives are put into the jacket material in order to make it more flame retardant. The NEC defines plenum cables by the airspace they are put into. Plenum rated cables are often used in building construction, typically they are used as communication cables for the building’s computer and telephone networks. Use of plenum areas for cable does pose some hazard in the event of a fire. This is because there are fewer barriers to contain smoke and flames.

Riser

OFNR – Optical Fiber Non-conductive Riser – is constructed of PVC and will emit toxic fumes when burned. Riser cables are to be run only in non-plenum areas. Plenum can usually replace riser but riser cannot replace plenum. Riser rated cables are typically used in the riser areas of buildings and in vertical telecommunications infrastructures. They connect from one floor to another and are used within shafts in accordance with section 800.53(B) of the NEC (National Electrical Code). They typically have load bearing strength members since they need to be upright without placing added stress on the fiber.

OFNR cable is resistant to oxidation and degradation but still gives off heavy black smoke and toxic gases when it is burned. Yet it is perfectly fine to use as a patch cord or for single in-wall runs. If you want to use it in a building, the building must feature a contained ventilation system and have good fire exits. Location is extremely important for these types of cables.

LSZH – Low Smoke Zero Halogen

These types of cables are made with halogen free materials and although they still emit smoke it is a much safer alternative. This type of cable jacket has superior safety characteristics. This rating offers low smoke, low toxicity and low corrosion standards. Tunnels, enclosed rooms, aircraft, and other minimum-ventilation areas are prime spots for the use of LSZH cables because areas like these are more difficult to escape from quickly. There are many different types of LSZH jacketed fiber optic cables provided for many different uses. The primary use for these types of cables is to satisfy the need for safety and environmental protection. Hospitals, schools and airports are good examples of where these cables should be installed. Due to the amount of people and the serious need for the protection of those people and equipment from toxic matter and gases should a fire ever occur. These cables are especially popular outside the United States, specifically for plenum spaces. Although it may seem as if you can replace plenum with LSZH cables, that’s not really the case. The difference is that while there is a lower smoke rating for LSZH, plenum cables have higher fire spread rating.

Cable tray rated

Tray cables are designed for just that, installation in cable trays. Primarily they are used in industrial control systems, factories, wind turbines and other severe environments. They can be rated for use indoors, outdoors, and in corrosive areas, for hazardous locations or high electrical noise areas. This cable was first introduced in order to combat failures in power and communication applications. There are several different kinds of cables to choose from, these include: Tray Cable (TC), Power Limited Tray Cable (PLTC), Instrumentation Tray Cable (ITC), Exposed Run (ER), and Wind Turbine Tray Cable (WTTC). Effective in direct sunlight as well as underground, these types of cables are extremely versatile in their application. Although cable in tray is viewed as being exposed to a greater risk of mechanical damage and it can be a potential ignition source or fuel load in a fire scenario. Due to this the NEC has a specific requirement in order to ensure the safety and quality of these fiber runs.

When choosing a jacket rating it is important to understand the placement and application where the cables will be run. It is pivotal that the cables meet local code requirements for the installations as well. These ratings are designed to prevent hazards and reduce risks to human and environmental health. We put on a jacket to prevent uncertainties from happening to our body, such as a cold or the flu. Fiber optic cable jacketing is very similar in the sense that we apply a certain compound to prevent a dangerous mishap, or if it does happen in the environment of the application.

Winter is coming… be sure to put on the appropriate jacket! .