How Much Do You Know About PLC Splitter?

What Is PLC Splitter?

PLC splitter, also called Planar Waveguide Circuit splitter, is a device used to divide one or two light beams to multiple light beams uniformly or combine multiple light beams to one or two light beams. It is a passive optical device with many input and output terminals, especially applicable to PON (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, etc.) to connect the MDF (main distribution frame) and the terminal equipment and to branch the optical signal.

PLC splitter provides a low-cost light distribution solution with high stability and reliability. PLC splitters can offer a splitting ratio of up to 1×64, which is generally higher than the splits of FBT splitter that another common type of optical splitter.

PLC Splitter Manufacturing Technology

PLC splitter is based on Semiconductor technology. As its name shows, PLC splitters are manufactured by planar waveguide circuit technology. PLC splitter design consists of one optical PLC chip and several optical arrays depending on the output ratio. The optical arrays are coupled on both ends of the PLC splitter chip.

PLC chip is one key component of a fiber PLC splitter. It is available in 1xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) and 2xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) splitting ratios. The figure below shows the typical design of a 1×8 PLC splitter chip.

Different Types of PLC Splitters

There are PLC splitter types in the market. Fiber optic PLC splitter can be categorized by the PLC splitter chip they use, meaning there are 1xN and 2xN PLC splitters, such as 1×4 splitter, 1×8 splitter, 1×16 splitter, 2×32 splitter, 2×64 PLC splitters, etc. Users can choose different input and output numbers depending on subscriber conditions or cable length.

In addition, PLC splitters also can be classified based on different packages to meet clients’ needs in various scenarios, including small size PLC splitter that needs to be used in terminal boxes and big size rack mounted PLC that can be installed in racks. All the following PLC splitters with different packages also support 1×2/4/8/32 forms. The different split ratio will cause different loss levels in PLC splitters. The following table shows the common different types of PLC splitters.

How Does PLC Splitter Work?

In passive optical networks (PON), PLC splitter is widely installed between the PON Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and the Optical Network Terminals/Units (ONTs/ONUs) that the OLT serves. The single fiber link coming from the Central Office (CO) OLT is connected with the input of a splitter and is split into a given number of fibers leaving the splitter. The number of outputs in the PLC module determines the number of splits.

PLC splitters can be used in centralized PON architecture or distributed architecture. In a centralized PON architecture, a 1×32 PLC splitter is often used in the Central Office. In a distributed PON architecture, a 1×4 PLC splitter is firstly directly connected to an OLT port in the Central Office, then each of the four fibers is routed to an outside plant terminal/enclosure box that houses a 1×8/1×4 PLC splitter.

Conclusion

As demand for higher bandwidth continues to grow, telecommunications companies rely on the PON network and need reliable PLC splitters to provide fiber optic links to an increasing number of users. PLC splitters allow a single PON network interface to be utilized by multiple users, maximizing a fiber network’s user capacity, offering the best solution for network builders.

Relationship Between the Optical Coupler and PLC Splitter

In fact, splitter is named for the function of the device, coulper named for its working principle, splitter may be based coupler, and may be based on the waveguide or the separating element, coupler can be done either the splitter, but also can be done WDM, attenuator.

Optical coupler either split optical signals into multiple paths or combines multiple signals on one path. Optical signals are more complex than electrical signals, making optical couplers trickier to design than their electrical counterparts. Like electrical currents, a flow of signal carriers, in this case photons, comprise the optical signal. However, an optical signal does not flow through the receiver to the ground. Rather, at the receiver, a detector absorbs the signal flow. Multiple receivers, connected in a series, would receive no signal past the first receiver which would absorb the entire signal. Thus, multiple parallel optical output ports must divide the signal between the ports, reducing its magnitude. The number of input and output ports, expressed as an N x M configuration, characterizes a coupler. The letter N represents the number of input fibers, and M represents the number of output fibers. Fused couplers can be made in any configuration, but they commonly use multiples of two (2 x 2, 4 x 4, 8 x 8, etc.).

PLC Splitter is a device that split the fiber optic light into several parts by a certain ratio. The simplest couplers are PLC Splitters. These devices possess at least three ports but may have more than 32 for more complex devices. PLC Splitters are important passive components used in FTTX networks. But two kinds of fiber splitters are popular used, one is the traditional fused type PLC Splitter (FBT splitter), which features competitive prices; the other is PLC PLC Splitter, which is compact size and suit for density applications. Both of them have its advantages to suit for different requirement.

PLC Spliiter

PLC Splitter typical parameter include input and output part cable length, splitting ratio, working wavelength and with what kind of fiber optic connectors. Just like fiber patch cable, fiber splitters are usually with 0.9mm, 2mm or 3mm cables. 0.9mm outer diameter cable is mostly used in stainless steel tube package PLC Splitters, while 2mm and 3mm cables are mostly used in box type package fiber splitters. Based on working wavelength difference there are single window and dual window PLC Splitters. And there are single mode fiber splitter and multimode fiber splitter. Typical connectors installed on the PLC Splitters are FC or SC type.

Optical coupler or PLC splitters are available in a selection of styles and sizes to separate or combine light with minimal loss. All couplers are produced employing a proprietary procedure that produces reliable, low-cost devices. They’re rugged and impervious to common high operating temperatures. Couplers can be fabricated with custom fiber lengths or with terminations of any type.

Types of Optical Isolator and their Working

An optical isolator, especially a Faraday isolator, is a device which transmits light in a certain direction while eliminating the back reflection and backscattering at any polarized state. It is generally categorized into two categories – Polarization Sensitive Optical Isolators and Polarization-Insensitive Optical Isolators. As I have already mentioned them as Faraday Isolators, it is obvious that they use the Faraday Effect of the Magneto-optical crystal. To know more about these isolators, let’s discuss the two types of optical isolators and how they work.

Polarization Sensitive Optical Isolators

These are the simplest Faraday Isolators which work only when the input beam has a guided linear polarization.

Working:

Their working is simple in which a polarized beam is passed through the first polarizer with minimum loss, then pass through 45 degree Faraday rotator and finally passed through the second polarizer with its transmitting axis being rotated by 45 degree in order to ensure that transmission losses are as low as possible.

When this light is reflected back to the output port with unmodified polarization state, it will fully pass through the output polarizer, but due to 45 degree rotated direction of polarization, the light will be blocked at the input polarizer or can be sent to separate output port. In case if the rotator’s rotation angle deviates from 45 degree due to any reason such as fabrication errors, the degree of isolation would be reduced. The problem is that we always need an isolator with high isolation which may be reduced in these kinds of isolators due to several reasons.

Polarization Insensitive Optical Isolators

A Polarization Insensitive Optical Isolator is the device which functions for arbitrary polarization of the input beam. As many fibers don’t maintain the polarization, such devices are often suitable and required in the context of fiber optics. Moreover, optical fiber communication systems are operated with arbitrary polarization state; so you need to use the Faraday Isolators and other components which can cope with undefined polarization state.

Principle:

The basic principle of PI optical isolator is to spatially separate the orthogonal polarization components of i/p beam with the help of a polarizer. Then, send them through Faraday rotator and combine the components again in the second polarizer.

The thing to note here is that polarization insensitive optical isolator doesn’t preserve the polarization state as there is an undefined relative phase change between the two components of polarization. This phase change is dependent on temperature and wavelength.

These isolators are widely used in telecommunication industry and various other applications in laser technology. They are characterized by high isolation, low insertion loss and excellent temperature stability. In the market, these isolators are available in various wavelengths and bandwidths. So, before making a purchase, clarify which specific isolator would be suitable for your use.

What to Know Before Buying Optical Circulator

Optical circulator is something used to monitor the optical power traveling in optical fiber. Either it can be used to polarize lights flowing different directions into a single direction or light in the single director into several directions.

There are varieties of Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulators meant to serve different purposes. Choose an optical circulator based on what you want to achieve.

What is Optical Circulator?

Optical circulator is a non-reciprocal device used to allow the routing of light from one fiber to another, and this happens based on the direction of the propagation.

A special fiber optical component, optical circulator is used to separate optical signals in an optical fiber. It comes with three ports, and they are designed in a way that when light enters any port, it will exist from the next. This feature of high isolation of the input along others such as optical powers, low insertion loss, makes optical circulator a device widely used in a wide range of advanced communication systems and fiber optical sensing devices.

There are many manufacturers in China offering different types of optical circulators such as Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator. If you are looking high quality circulators designed to your specific needs, and the best most competitive price, DK Photonics which offers a wide range of optical passive devices including the most widely used Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator can be the right choice for you.

Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulators offered by DK Photonics comprised of several world-class features such as:

Low Insertion Loss

High Isolation

Low PD

High Stability and Reliability

Cost Effective

These are a few of the features that make the circulator highly suitable for the use in a wide range of applications. Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulators are widely used in:

DWDM Systems

Optical Fiber Amplifier

Pump Laser Source

Fiber Optic Sensor

Test and Measurement

Instrumentation

How to does the optical circulator work?

The Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator which is used in fiber optical system directs the light/optical signals from one port to another. This helps prevent the signals transmitting in undesired direction. In a circulator which has three ports, signal is pushed from one port to the second port, and the another signal is directed from the port second to port 3 and at last, a third signal is transmitted from the last port to again to the port one. This is how the circulator helps you control the light and direct the signals into desired direction.

Single-mode and Multimode of Fiber Optic Splitters

The easiest coupler, fiber optic splitters device. fiber optic coupler, also known as beam splitter, found in a specific split the wire. It really is split into several beam fiber bundle is dependent upon quartz substrate integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, as with the coaxial cable transmission system, optical network system must also represent the identical connect to branch distribution, and the need of optical fiber branching device from the optical signal, here is the most important passive fiber link equipment, fiber optic series device provides extensive input and output terminal and terminal, especially applicable for passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) coupled to the medium density fiberboard (MDF) and the terminal branch of the signal device also can achieve with light.

A fiber-optic splitter is really a device that can take just one fiber optics signal and divides it into multiple signals. Fiber optic splitter is probably the key components in FTTH. Fiber optic splitters could be terminated with various forms of connectors, the primary package could be box type or stainless tube type, you are usually used with 2mm or 3mm outer diameter cable, another is usually combined with 0.9mm outer diameter cables. Based on working wavelength difference you will find single window and dual window fiber optic splitters. There are fiber splitter single mode and multimode fiber splitter.

If all involved fibers with the fiber coupler are single-mode, there are certain physical restrictions around the performance with all the coupler. for example, it isn’t simple to combine two inputs of the same optical frequency into one single-polarization output without significant excess losses. However, a fiber optic coupler which might combine two inputs at different wavelengths into one output, which can be commonly seen in fiber amplifiers to blend the signal input along with the pump wave.

Remember, fiber couplers not merely have single-mode couplers, but additionally have multimode couplers. Multimode Coupler is fabricated from graded index fibers with core diameters of 50um or 62.5um. Fiber optic multimode couplers are employed for short distance communications at 1310nm or 850nm. Multimode couplers are produced utilizing a technique or fusion technique. They are presented for a lot of common multimode fibers with core diameters from 50μm to 1500μm.

Largest fiber optic supplier fiber-mart.com now supplies a selection of fiber optic splitters. For more information about fiber optic splitters, please give us a call at sales@fiber-mart.com. we will be your better choice in fiber splitters.

A GUIDE TO LEGRAND USB HUBS, ADAPTERS AND EXTENDERS

by http://www.fiber-mart.comUSB continues to evolve and will soon become one of our most powerful connectivity technologies, driving some of the most profound changes in the communications industry will ever see. Over the past few weeks we have been discussing the wide variety of USB connectivity solutions from C2G, a Group Brand of Legrand North America. This week we will take a closer looks at USB Hubs, Adapters and Extenders. USB Hubs USB hubs come in a number of configurations and form factors.

A couple favorites for keeping a desktop installation clean and simple are the 2-Port USB Hub, which is ideal for students or anyone who travels with a laptop PC or Chromebook, and the 12-meter USB 2.0 A Male to Female 4-Port Active Extension Cable, which can connect several devices in an unbroken 40-foot run. This later product should not be used to connect an interactive flat panel display, however. Displays with multi-touch capability demand more power than such a passive device can manage. We’ll look at the right solution for that application next. By far the best available in the industry, the 4-Port Trulink® USB 3.0 SuperSpeed Hub is the standard by which competing products should be measured. This is the hub you must demand for all of your critical installations! 

USB Extenders Sometimes an installation needs more than 5-meters of connectivity. When installing an interactive white board in a classroom or an interactive flat panel in a conference room, run length and plenum demands are environmental hurdles and nothing will suffice except the right gear. Bus powered USB solutions derive their operating power from the USB port on the host or hub to which they are attached. It’s important to understand the power demands of these devices and the power demands of the devices they are connecting in order to ensure dependable operation.

One very effective solution is to use a USB A Male to A Female Active Extension cable and place a powered hub at the far end to re-establish full port power when needed. Legrand active extension cables are available in 16ft and 32-foot CMP-rated versions for plenum installations, or in a 7.5-meter or 25-feet , 39.4-feet or 12-meter standard version for use in Wiremold® OFR overfloor raceway, for example. When runs are more than 40-feet long, or for runs that need precise custom-length solutions (such as runs through conduit, for example), the best solution is to use a USB Superbooster that deploys a length of category cable (Cat5e is fine) for connections up to 100-meters long. Superbooster solutions come in both USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 models. 

The Legrand USB 1.1 Over Cat5 Superbooster Extender is designed specifically for use with interactive white boards. This is the perfect solution for high-density K12 classroom installations. This product is available in both a dongle format and a wall-plate format, and you can mix and match transmitters and receivers to get the right form factor for your project. Legrand Trulink® USB 2.0 Over Cat5 Superbooster Extender solutions are the only solution expressly designed to handle the high-performance demands of state-of-the-art interactive flat panel LCD displays. Also available in both dongle and wall-plate formats for mix-and-match custom applications, this solution ensures that enough power will be available at the end of the run for these demanding devices to work properly.

When the product demands multi-touch interactivity and needs USB 2.0 speeds, this is the solution that will meet design expectations. USB Video Adapters MHL is a powerful solution that allows mobile devices equipped with a USB Micro-B port to connect directly to a compatible HDMI MHL-compliant port on a display or matrix controller. Using this adapter, it’s easy to connect a smartphone or table to any HDMI equipped display. This is ideal for impromptu presentations or sharing pictures and videos from your phone with a small group.

Since almost all newer consumer LCD televisions have MHL compatibility, this is an important connection for anyone who has to make in-home presentations. For higher performance installations, particularly where multi-display solutions are needed, an active USB 3.0 solution may be perfect. Legrand offers USB 2.0 to HDMI A/V, USB 2.0 to VGA, and USB 2.0 to DVI active adapters. For higher performance, and especially for video intensive installations, Legrand USB 3.0 to HDMI, USB 3.0 to DisplayPort, USB 3.0 to DVI-D and USB 3.0 to VGA adapters are ideal solutions.