Understand 10G SFP+ Transceiver From the Perspective of Connecting Cable Types

by http://www.fiber-mart.comSFP+ transceiver is very popular in many data center and enterprise servers network application. As we all known, 10G SFP+ transceivers have a big branch family. Different SFP+ transceivers can provide a wide variety of connectivity options. There are several approaches for us to understand 10G SFP+ transceivers family. For example, with the compliance to different 10G Ethernet standard, we can classify transceivers as 10GBase-SR, 10GBase-LR, 10GBase-ER, 10GBase-ZR etc. Or viewing from the port type, we can see the difference between the SFP+ transceiver configured with duplex LC connector or a RJ-45 connector. But there is another approach we can understand and distinguish SFP+ transceivers. And That is waht I am going to talk about: the Connecting Cable Types. 1.Copper Cable 10GBase-T SFP+ is a transceiver configured with a RJ-45 port, which means that it uses copper cable to provide connections of 10G transmission speed. Cat 6, cat 6a or cat 7 copper cable is required in this situation. As for the transmission distance, it only supports a link length of up to 30 meters. 10GBase-T SFP+ transceiver is a suitable one for very short distances and offer a cost-effective way to connect within racks and across adjacent racks. 2.Multi-mode fiber 10GBase-SR SFP+ is the transceiver using multi-mode fiber to transfer data in SFP+ family. It is using 850nm wavelength. 10GBaase-SR transceiver supports a link length of 26m on standard Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)-grade multi-mode fiber. Using OM3 multi-mode fiber, up to 300m link lengths are possible. Using OM4 multi-mode, up to 400m link lengths are possible. 3.Both single-mode fiber & multi-mode fiber available 10GBase-LX4 and 10GBase-LRM transceiver is using both single-mode fiber and multi-mode fiber to transfer data. 10GBase-LX4 transceiver uses CWDM technology to divide 12.5 GB/s data streams into four 3.125 GB/s data streams that are propagated in optical fibers. And due to the 8B/10B encoding, the effective data flow is 10 GB/s. But 10GBase-LX4 transceiver has the disadvantages of high cost and much power consumption. Therefore,it has a very narrow market. 10GBase-LRM transceiver is a replacement of 10GBASE-LX4 transceiver, allowing distances up to 220 meters. It supports link lengths of 220m on standard Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) grade Multi-mode Fiber. There’s one thing to notice. To make sure that specifications are met over FDDI-grade, OM1 and OM2 fibers, the transceiver should be coupled through a mode conditioning patch cord. No mode conditioning patch cord is required for applications over OM3 or OM4. Besides, using standard single-mode fiber, 10GBase-LRM module also can support a link length of 300m. In general, multi-mode fiber connecting is the most application scenario for 10GBase-LRM transceiver. 4.Single-mode fiber There are three basic kinds of transceivers using single-mode fibers to transfer data in SFP+ family: 10GBase-LR, 10GBase-ER, 10GBase-ZR. With carrying different wavelength, every transceiver can reach up different distances. For example, 10GBase-LR transceiver can support a link length of up to 10 kilometers. 10GBase-ER transceiver can support a link length of up to 40 kilometers. 10GBase-ZR transceiver can support a link length of up to 80 kilometers. Due to a superior transmission range and usually a long length of optic fiber cable, using these three transceivers means much higher cost. So these three kinds of transceivers are the better option where budget is not a constraint, or when the demand for long cable system. Conclusion From the perspective of connecting cable types, we will have a more clear image of 10G SFP+ transceiver. In fact, we can easily draw the conclusion: different cable types constrain the transmission distance of the 10G SFP+ transceiver. The range of transmission distance is an important consideration factor of selecting SFP+ transceivers.

Fiber Optic Transceivers for 5G Networking Equipment

by http://www.fiber-mart.com5G rollouts are on the horizon, with major telecom companies set to rollout limited network access in the US and Europe. Most folks pay attention to the wireless requirements in these networks, but local antennas will still need to be connected to the telephone network and the Internet with high bandwidth optical fibers or wireless backhaul connections. All this requires fiber optic transceivers to support fiber networking equipment. Choosing the right transceiver for fiber networks depends on multiple factors, although in 5G the principal factors to consider are bandwidth, data rate, conversion loss, and fiber type. Before you can choose the correct fiber transceiver, the first step is to determine what type of fiber the network is using, or what type of fiber cable the application will require to achieve optimal speed and bandwidth. Which Type of Fiber are You Using?There are two main types of fiber cable, each of which is appropriate for different applications and will require different transceivers: Multimode Fiber (MMF): this type of fiber can be used to transmit multiple channels simultaneously. Greater mode density leads to greater modal dispersion that accumulates over the distance of the fiber, thus these fibers are best used for short-run links, such as in MAN and LAN networks. Single-mode Fiber (SMF): This fiber is designed for longer distances and will provide faster data transmission rates in a single channel with the correct transceivers. These fibers are often bundled in a single cable for massive data transmission over long distances. Within SMF and MMF classes of fiber, there are different fiber types that provide different data rates and are rated for use over different distances under TIA/EIA standards for fiber optics. Your optical power budget will also determine the limit transceiver you can use for a given link length, and your output on the transmitting side may need to increase the output from your transmitting transceiver to compensate losses in a link. Clearly, there are several important systems design points to consider, but the first important points to consider in a real network are link length and required data rate. Newer portions of fiber to support upcoming 5G rollouts require multi-Gbps data transmission over long distances to support connections between base stations and cell towers, and to provide fiber-to-the-home and fiber-to-the-premises. Some municipalities are already installing dark fiber that is capable of up to 40 or 100 Gbps, and networking equipment to support these dark fiber networks will need to include transceivers to support these data rates. Ideal link lengths can range anywhere from hundreds of meters (MMF will be used here) up to be dozens of kilometers (SMF will be used here) in order to support existing cellular infrastructure. If you’re working with SMF fiber over long distances, expect to drop bundles of fiber and deploy scalable networking equipment that includes swappable transceivers with standard form factors. QSFP+ or CFP will be the dominant form factors, especially CFP as it already supports 40 and 100 Gbps systems. Note that, in some cases, you can get away with using an SMF with a fiber optic transceiver designed for MMF as the core in an SMF fiber is about 20% the value required in the receiver. This provides easy coupling and the fiber will be insensitive to alignment, but this is not recommended and many not work over longer distances. In the ideal case, you should choose a transceiver that will support the data rates and fiber type you are using in your particular application.

FTTx Solution: What is the difference between ONU and ONT?

by http://www.fiber-mart.comIn the project of the Optical Fiber Access Network, the end-user has two nouns, ONU and ONT. However, many people are not quite sure what the two words mean. The optical fiber is connected to the ONU through the passive optical network equipment (ODN). After the branch is connected to the ONU, the ONU acts as an optical port. The user port is used as the Ethernet port to directly access the Internet. First, we should know these nouns: FTTH: fiber to the home, FTTO: fiber to the office, FTTB: fiber to the building, OLT: Optical line terminal, ODN: Optical wiring network, ONU: Optical network unit, ONT: Optical network terminal. In the different environment, the comparison of ONT and ONU is different. In the FTTH, ONU refers to an optical network device connected to the branch fiber of the ODN. ONT refers to the optical network device connected to the end user (that is, our home). When the carrier fiber enters the home, there will be a fiber-optic modem. We usually say that the optical cat is connected to the branch fiber of the ODN and also connected to the end user. It can be called ONU or ONT. So, at this time, ONU=ONT. In the FTTB, this ONU box is placed at the entrance of our house, like the style of the main meter in each corridor. At this time, the small device connected to the ODN fiber can not be in the end user’s home. We can’t just equate the ONT with the ONU. FTTB’s ONU box, a fiber comes in, and branches out a number of network cables. The MDU Multiple Dwelling Unit multi-user unit in the FTTB is one of the ONUs. MDU can lead to multiple network cables. To describe simply: FTTB “fiber to the building”, the 16-port ONU is placed in the unit box in the corridor, there are 16 ONTs in the ONU, and each ONT output is a network cable (electric signal), which reaches each user terminal through the network cable in the corridor. FTTH “Fiber to the Home”, the 1 to 16 splitter is placed in the cell box in the corridor, and then through the fiber optic cable in the corridor to each user, each user is connected to an ONT. It is equivalent to dismantling the ONU, so that the terminal device is infinitely close to the user. The ONT can be understood as an ONU with only one port.

What is OTN, Is it Similar with ONT?

by http://www.fiber-mart.comIn the Access network, we have heard about ONT. Now, I tell you this OTN. Same letters, different order. Are OTN and ONT the same things? Obviously not! ONT belongs to the Access network. It’s the Optical network terminal, a product in the xPON network access solution. However, OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. Maybe you have heard about some companies produce transmission network products, such as Huawei OptiXtrans DC908 OTN, ZTE ZXONE 9700 OTN, and so on. In this article, I will introduce the overview of OTN. Enjoy it! What is OTN? OTN is based on WDM technology. An optical transport network (OTN), a type of network, refers to a transport network that implements transmission, multiplexing, routing, and monitoring of service signals in the optical domain, and guarantees performance indicators and survivability. What is the benefit of OTN? The main advantage of OTN is complete backward compatibility. It can be built on the existing SONET/SDH management functions, which not only provides complete transparency of existing communication protocols, but also provides end-to-end connection and networking capabilities for WDM. It provides ROADM with optical layer interconnection specifications and supplements sub-wavelength convergence and grooming capabilities. It mainly establishes end-to-end link and networking capabilities on the basis of SDH, and provides a model for the optical layer. The OTN concept covers both optical and electrical layers. Its technology inherits the dual advantages of SDH and WDM. The key technical characteristics are as follows: Various customer signal packaging and transparent transmissionThe OTN frame structure based on ITU-TG.709 can support the mapping and transparent transmission of various customer signals, such as SDH, ATM, and Ethernet. Standard encapsulation and transparent transmission can be realized for SDH and ATM, but the support for Ethernet at different rates is different. ITU-TG.sup43 provides supplementary suggestions for 10GE services to achieve different degrees of transparent transmission, and for GE, 40GE, 100GE Ethernet, private network services Fibre Channel (FC) and access network services Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON ) Etc., its standardized mapping to OTN frames is currently under discussion. Bandwidth reuse, interleaving and configuration of large particlesThe electrical layer bandwidth particles defined by OTN are optical path data units (O-DUk, k=0,1,2,3), namely ODUO (GE, 1000M/S), ODU1 (2.5Gb/s), ODU2 (10Gb/s ) And ODU3 (40Gb/s), the bandwidth particles of the optical layer are wavelengths. Compared with the SDH VC-12/VC-4 scheduling particles, the OTN multiplexing, crossover and configuration particles are significantly larger, which can significantly improve the high Adaptability and transmission efficiency of bandwidth data client services. Powerful expenses and maintenance management capabilitiesOTN provides similar overhead management capabilities as SDH. The OTN frame structure of the OTN optical path (OCh) layer greatly enhances the digital monitoring capabilities of this layer. In addition, OTN also provides a 6-layer nested serial connection monitoring (TCM) function, which makes it possible for OTN networking to adopt end-to-end and multiple segment simultaneous performance monitoring. Provides suitable management methods for cross-operator transmission. Enhanced networking and protection capabilitiesThrough the introduction of OTN frame structure, ODUk crossover and multi-dimensional reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM), the networking capability of the optical transmission network has been greatly enhanced, and the scheduling bandwidth and WDM based on SDHVC-12/VC-4 have been changed. Point-to-point provides the status of large-capacity transmission bandwidth. The use of forward error correction (FEC) technology significantly increases the transmission distance of the optical layer. In addition, OTN will provide more flexible service protection functions based on electrical and optical layers, such as ODUk layer-based photonic network connection protection (SNCP) and shared ring network protection, optical layer-based optical channel or multiplex section protection, etc. However, the shared ring network technology has not been standardized. OTN vs. SDH, WDM Based on WDM technology, OTN introduces the powerful operation, maintenance, management and assignment (OAM) capabilities of SDH on the basis of super large transmission capacity. At the same time OTN makes up for the lack of SDH functions and maintenance management overhead when facing the transport layer. It uses the embedded standard FEC, rich maintenance and management overhead, suitable for large particle business access FEC error correction coding, improves the error performance, and increases the span of optical transmission. What is the Application of OTN? The intelligent optical network based on OTN will provide a very ideal solution for the transmission of large-particle broadband services. The transmission network is mainly composed of an inter-provincial trunk transmission network, an intra-provincial trunk transmission network, and a metropolitan (local) transmission network, and the metropolitan (local) transmission network can be further divided into a core layer, a convergence layer, and an access layer. Compared with SDH, the biggest advantage of OTN technology is to provide large-grain bandwidth scheduling and transmission. Therefore, whether to use OTN technology at different network levels depends on the size of the main scheduling service bandwidth particles. According to the current status of the network, the main particles of the core layer scheduling of the inter-provincial trunk transmission network, the intra-provincial trunk transmission network and the metropolitan (local) transmission network are generally Gb/s and above. Therefore, these layers can be used to take advantage of advantages and scalability. For the convergence and access level of the metropolitan (local) transmission network, when the main scheduling particles reach the Gb/s level, OTN technology can also be used for priority construction. Summary OTN is a Transport network solution, which is very different with ONT, an Access network product. Do you have other questions about OTN? Welcome to leave your comments here.

Optical Transmission vs. Microwave Transmission

by http://www.fiber-mart.comMicrowave communication refers to the method of using microwave (Microwave) as a carrier to carry information and carry out relay communication. Nowadays, although wired transmission networks dominated by optical fiber communication dominate, we still cannot do without microwave communication in some special application scenarios. For example, in remote areas, it is too difficult or costly to deploy cables, or when natural disasters occur, optical fiber transmission is damaged. Compared with optical fiber communication, microwave still has many irreplaceable advantages. For example, the cost is low, and the ability to resist disasters is strong. What are the specific differences between them? First of all, when we talk about microwaves, we may think of microwave ovens in our minds. Microwave ovens are actually an application that makes good use of microwave principles, but the most important thing for microwaves is the communication in our lives. The signals of our mobile phones can be transmitted in Internet browsing is the way microwave is applied in our lives. Of course, the same can be done as an optical fiber. We often hear that the home needs to install an optical fiber with a faster network speed. The Wi-Fi router is a form of optical fiber communication. Then these two are also the methods of transmitting the traffic in our lives, but they are very different in principle. Microwave is wireless, it transmits information through wavelength reflection, and optical fiber is a kind of wired data transmission through wire, and this principle also leads to some of their characteristics. The wavelength range of the microwave causes its poor penetration and is susceptible to interference of the same frequency, which also makes it less stable than that. In this way, it seems that microwave is more inferior, and in today’s optical fiber era, optical fiber coverage is larger, and it is also the main transmission method of our base station. Microwave replacement of optical fiber is not ideal. The reason why some people think that the arrival of 5G to make microwave transmission faster will affect the results of both parties, but also that too many factors have not been considered. The transmission speed of optical fiber is incomparable to microwave, and its stability is higher and it will not be affected and interfered as easily as microwave. However, compared with optical fiber communication microwave, it also has advantages that others cannot replace. Its cost is low, and its construction will be more flexible and faster. This advantage allows microwave to be popularized in many places and in an environment where optical fiber cannot be constructed. Can be replaced by microwave. In some places, it is difficult to build and deploy optical fibers and the cost is very high. Composition of optical transmission equipment: Optical transmission equipment includes MSTP, WDM, OTN, PTN and optical fiber and other accessories. MSTP (Multi-Service Transfer Platform) (SDH-based multi-service transfer platform) refers to the simultaneous realization of the access, processing and transmission of services such as TDM, ATM, and Ethernet based on the SDH platform. Dao provides multiple services for unified network management. Business node. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) combines two or more optical carrier signals of different wavelengths (carrying various information) at the transmitting end through a multiplexer (also called a multiplexer), and the technology of transmission in the same optical fiber coupled to the optical line. This type of equipment uses this technology. OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. This type of equipment uses this technology. Optical Transmission vs. Microwave TransmissionPosted on September 4, 2020 by RS-Tech | 0 Comments18th Anniversary SaleIn our daily life, we can see base stations everywhere. It looks like this: station However, if you observe carefully, you will find that on the roof of some buildings, in addition to the base station, there will be some devices like “big drums”. microwave These “big drums” are what we usually call “microwave equipment”. More accurately, it is the “microwave communication antenna.” Microwave communication refers to the method of using microwave (Microwave) as a carrier to carry information and carry out relay communication. Nowadays, although wired transmission networks dominated by optical fiber communication dominate, we still cannot do without microwave communication in some special application scenarios. For example, in remote areas, it is too difficult or costly to deploy cables, or when natural disasters occur, optical fiber transmission is damaged. Compared with optical fiber communication, microwave still has many irreplaceable advantages. For example, the cost is low, and the ability to resist disasters is strong. What are the specific differences between them? First of all, when we talk about microwaves, we may think of microwave ovens in our minds. Microwave ovens are actually an application that makes good use of microwave principles, but the most important thing for microwaves is the communication in our lives. The signals of our mobile phones can be transmitted in Internet browsing is the way microwave is applied in our lives. Of course, the same can be done as an optical fiber. We often hear that the home needs to install an optical fiber with a faster network speed. The Wi-Fi router is a form of optical fiber communication. Then these two are also the methods of transmitting the traffic in our lives, but they are very different in principle. Microwave is wireless, it transmits information through wavelength reflection, and optical fiber is a kind of wired data transmission through wire, and this principle also leads to some of their characteristics. The wavelength range of the microwave causes its poor penetration and is susceptible to interference of the same frequency, which also makes it less stable than that. In this way, it seems that microwave is more inferior, and in today’s optical fiber era, optical fiber coverage is larger, and it is also the main transmission method of our base station. Microwave replacement of optical fiber is not ideal. The reason why some people think that the arrival of 5G to make microwave transmission faster will affect the results of both parties, but also that too many factors have not been considered. microwave-1 The transmission speed of optical fiber is incomparable to microwave, and its stability is higher and it will not be affected and interfered as easily as microwave. However, compared with optical fiber communication microwave, it also has advantages that others cannot replace. Its cost is low, and its construction will be more flexible and faster. This advantage allows microwave to be popularized in many places and in an environment where optical fiber cannot be constructed. Can be replaced by microwave. In some places, it is difficult to build and deploy optical fibers and the cost is very high. Type Optical transmission Microwave transmissionTransmission medium Optical Fiber Free spaceResistance to natural disasters Weak StrongFlexibility Low HighCost of Construction High LowPeriod of Construction Long ShortTransmission rate High LowComposition of optical transmission equipment: Optical transmission equipment includes MSTP, WDM, OTN, PTN and optical fiber and other accessories. MSTP (Multi-Service Transfer Platform) (SDH-based multi-service transfer platform) refers to the simultaneous realization of the access, processing and transmission of services such as TDM, ATM, and Ethernet based on the SDH platform. Dao provides multiple services for unified network management. Business node. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) combines two or more optical carrier signals of different wavelengths (carrying various information) at the transmitting end through a multiplexer (also called a multiplexer), and the technology of transmission in the same optical fiber coupled to the optical line. This type of equipment uses this technology. OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. This type of equipment uses this technology. huawei-optix-osn-7500 PTN (Packet Transport Network, Packet Transport Network) refers to such an optical transport network architecture and specific technology: a layer is set up between the IP service and the underlying optical transmission medium, and it aims at the burstiness and statistical replication of packet service traffic. Designed with transmission requirements, with packet services as the core and support for multi-service provision, with lower total cost of use (TCO), while adhering to the traditional advantages of optical transmission, including high availability and reliability, efficient bandwidth management mechanisms and Traffic engineering, convenient OAM and network management, scalability, high security, etc. This type of equipment uses this technology. Composition of microwave equipment: Generally speaking, microwave equipment is mainly composed of IDU, ODU, intermediate frequency cable, antenna and other parts. IDU is an indoor unit, Indoor Unit. ODU is an outdoor unit, Outdoor Unit. Intermediate frequency means that the transmitter transforms the signal carrier into the transmitting frequency, or transforms the receiving frequency into an intermediate frequency of the baseband, which is generally determined by the system architecture. The radio frequency is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave signal transmitted by the antenna and propagated in the air. Needless to say, the antenna converts radio frequency signals into electromagnetic waves and radiates into the air. Or receive electromagnetic waves, convert them into radio frequency signals, and send them to ODU. In addition to the “big drum” that everyone sees, there are also parabolic antennas and Cassegrain antennas. This type of antenna is used in satellite communications. It can be said that microwaves and optical fibers meet their different needs. It is more suitable to construct optical fibers in densely populated areas and urban environments with high-rise buildings, while it is more suitable to construct microwaves in a wide and flat environment without the obstacles of some buildings. They are not the competitors we think, but they are making up for each other.

Saving A Fiber Optic Cable Before It Breaks

by http://www.fiber-mart.comThere are myriad of stories where fiber optic cables are broken and resources are marshalled to find the location of the break and fix the fiber.  In the United States over a 9 month period monitoring a Google Alerts feed there were over 120 reported fiber optic cable breaks. Since most breaks never get reported it can be assumed that this is only a small fraction. I’ve written about the importance of documenting the fiber optic network in order to make it faster to repair broken fibers (Where’s The Fault: My Introduction to “WTF”).  But, what if a prospective break could be found before a fracture actually occurred?  If a fiber in distress can be discovered before damage is done resources and reputation can be saved.  That was the case with a Singapore based communication service provider. This service provider knows the importance of monitoring the network, especially with all of the construction in Singapore and surrounding areas where their network exists.  They had installed the Fiber Guardian from Exfo (www.exfo.com) to help ensure the security of their network.  The Fiber Guardian inserts light into the fiber to actively monitor it using OTDR technology.  The results of the active monitoring are compared to a baseline OTDR trace. If there are differences between what is found and what is expected the Fiber Guardian will go into alarm and send email and text messages to specified service technicians.  What helps make the Fiber Guardian so valuable is that it is linked to a street map with the monitored fiber optic cables superimposed. This isn’t a typical map. It is housed within a special software application called Fiber Test InSight (www.ospinsight.com) that is designed to use the length to the fault contained within the Fiber Guardian alarm and find the location on a map.  Thus, not only are technicians notified that there is a problem, they are directed to where the problem is.  Late last year technicians for this Singapore based service provider received email and SMS indicating there was degradation in their network.  They quickly went to the location they were directed to by Fiber Test Insight and Fiber Guardian. Once there, they found a massive construction project.  They noticed that the conduit their cables were in had a sharp bend that was compromising their fiber optic cable. They showed this to the on-site project manager who subsequently was able to secure the damaged pipe.  Finding this cable probably prevented a major outage and saved a tremendous amount of resources in time and repair. Mark this up to another example of the importance of proactively preparing for the inevitable by managing the fiber optic network.  Interesting side note, this one incident justified the cost for their fiber monitoring solution.