What Is an Optical Attenuator?

An optical attenuator decreases the strength of an optical signal passing through it to a fiber optic cable or open air. The intensity of the signal is described in decibels over a specific distance the signal travels. It is the strength, or amplitude of the signal that changes and not the overall waveform or frequency, so the optical signal remains undistorted for use in the desired application. Optical attenuators are often used in optical communication systems, in which the attenuation, also called transmission loss, helps with the long-distance transmission of digital signals. The most common optical attenuator types include fixed and continuously variable attenuators.

Often installed where signals are transmitted from, an optical attenuator can apply the principle of gap loss so the signal intensity is lowered to the optimal level over a given distance. Attenuators installed elsewhere along the optical fiber will not lower the signal strength enough, but some devices utilize signal absorbing or reflecting components to compensate. An optical fiber connector is often attached to the optical attenuator which typically has an adapter with a female configuration. The attenuator itself usually has a cylindrical or even box-like structural shape which determines the type of equipment in which it can be installed.

The fixed variety of optical attenuator, sometimes found in an electronic circuit, does not reflect light signals to reduce their intensity. It is generally used where the transmission of data needs to be highly accurate. The device’s function is determined by the amount of power it can handle in addition to important variables such as performance versus temperature and frequency range. Most optical attenuators utilize resistors, but a variable optical attenuator uses metal semiconductor field effect transistors or other solid state components. Attenuation intensity is adjustable so the signals in a fiber optic communication system can be changed to accommodate fluctuating power levels, protecting the system from damage.

A variable optical attenuator can be mounted on a printed circuit board, or used in test devices such as an optical power meter. Many attenuators are installed in-line with an optical fiber cable in order to adjust the transmitted signal accordingly. They are sold by many retailers and manufacturers online so one can assess their characteristics by reading the product specifications. Aspects to consider include the average and peak power the device can tolerate, how much attenuation it provides, as well as its overall dimensions and the type of environment it can operate in.

How Much Do You Know About PLC Splitter?

What Is PLC Splitter?

PLC splitter, also called Planar Waveguide Circuit splitter, is a device used to divide one or two light beams to multiple light beams uniformly or combine multiple light beams to one or two light beams. It is a passive optical device with many input and output terminals, especially applicable to PON (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, etc.) to connect the MDF (main distribution frame) and the terminal equipment and to branch the optical signal.

PLC splitter provides a low-cost light distribution solution with high stability and reliability. PLC splitters can offer a splitting ratio of up to 1×64, which is generally higher than the splits of FBT splitter that another common type of optical splitter.

PLC Splitter Manufacturing Technology

PLC splitter is based on Semiconductor technology. As its name shows, PLC splitters are manufactured by planar waveguide circuit technology. PLC splitter design consists of one optical PLC chip and several optical arrays depending on the output ratio. The optical arrays are coupled on both ends of the PLC splitter chip.

PLC chip is one key component of a fiber PLC splitter. It is available in 1xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) and 2xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) splitting ratios. The figure below shows the typical design of a 1×8 PLC splitter chip.

Different Types of PLC Splitters

There are PLC splitter types in the market. Fiber optic PLC splitter can be categorized by the PLC splitter chip they use, meaning there are 1xN and 2xN PLC splitters, such as 1×4 splitter, 1×8 splitter, 1×16 splitter, 2×32 splitter, 2×64 PLC splitters, etc. Users can choose different input and output numbers depending on subscriber conditions or cable length.

In addition, PLC splitters also can be classified based on different packages to meet clients’ needs in various scenarios, including small size PLC splitter that needs to be used in terminal boxes and big size rack mounted PLC that can be installed in racks. All the following PLC splitters with different packages also support 1×2/4/8/32 forms. The different split ratio will cause different loss levels in PLC splitters. The following table shows the common different types of PLC splitters.

How Does PLC Splitter Work?

In passive optical networks (PON), PLC splitter is widely installed between the PON Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and the Optical Network Terminals/Units (ONTs/ONUs) that the OLT serves. The single fiber link coming from the Central Office (CO) OLT is connected with the input of a splitter and is split into a given number of fibers leaving the splitter. The number of outputs in the PLC module determines the number of splits.

PLC splitters can be used in centralized PON architecture or distributed architecture. In a centralized PON architecture, a 1×32 PLC splitter is often used in the Central Office. In a distributed PON architecture, a 1×4 PLC splitter is firstly directly connected to an OLT port in the Central Office, then each of the four fibers is routed to an outside plant terminal/enclosure box that houses a 1×8/1×4 PLC splitter.

Conclusion

As demand for higher bandwidth continues to grow, telecommunications companies rely on the PON network and need reliable PLC splitters to provide fiber optic links to an increasing number of users. PLC splitters allow a single PON network interface to be utilized by multiple users, maximizing a fiber network’s user capacity, offering the best solution for network builders.

How Much Do You Know About PLC Splitter?

What Is PLC Splitter?

PLC splitter, also called Planar Waveguide Circuit splitter, is a device used to divide one or two light beams to multiple light beams uniformly or combine multiple light beams to one or two light beams. It is a passive optical device with many input and output terminals, especially applicable to PON (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, etc.) to connect the MDF (main distribution frame) and the terminal equipment and to branch the optical signal.

PLC splitter provides a low-cost light distribution solution with high stability and reliability. PLC splitters can offer a splitting ratio of up to 1×64, which is generally higher than the splits of FBT splitter that another common type of optical splitter.

PLC Splitter Manufacturing Technology

PLC splitter is based on Semiconductor technology. As its name shows, PLC splitters are manufactured by planar waveguide circuit technology. PLC splitter design consists of one optical PLC chip and several optical arrays depending on the output ratio. The optical arrays are coupled on both ends of the PLC splitter chip.

PLC chip is one key component of a fiber PLC splitter. It is available in 1xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) and 2xN (N=2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64) splitting ratios. The figure below shows the typical design of a 1×8 PLC splitter chip.

Different Types of PLC Splitters

There are PLC splitter types in the market. Fiber optic PLC splitter can be categorized by the PLC splitter chip they use, meaning there are 1xN and 2xN PLC splitters, such as 1×4 splitter, 1×8 splitter, 1×16 splitter, 2×32 splitter, 2×64 PLC splitters, etc. Users can choose different input and output numbers depending on subscriber conditions or cable length.

In addition, PLC splitters also can be classified based on different packages to meet clients’ needs in various scenarios, including small size PLC splitter that needs to be used in terminal boxes and big size rack mounted PLC that can be installed in racks. All the following PLC splitters with different packages also support 1×2/4/8/32 forms. The different split ratio will cause different loss levels in PLC splitters. The following table shows the common different types of PLC splitters.

How Does PLC Splitter Work?

In passive optical networks (PON), PLC splitter is widely installed between the PON Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and the Optical Network Terminals/Units (ONTs/ONUs) that the OLT serves. The single fiber link coming from the Central Office (CO) OLT is connected with the input of a splitter and is split into a given number of fibers leaving the splitter. The number of outputs in the PLC module determines the number of splits.

PLC splitters can be used in centralized PON architecture or distributed architecture. In a centralized PON architecture, a 1×32 PLC splitter is often used in the Central Office. In a distributed PON architecture, a 1×4 PLC splitter is firstly directly connected to an OLT port in the Central Office, then each of the four fibers is routed to an outside plant terminal/enclosure box that houses a 1×8/1×4 PLC splitter.

Conclusion

As demand for higher bandwidth continues to grow, telecommunications companies rely on the PON network and need reliable PLC splitters to provide fiber optic links to an increasing number of users. PLC splitters allow a single PON network interface to be utilized by multiple users, maximizing a fiber network’s user capacity, offering the best solution for network builders.

These Are Proven Tips That Will Help Quickly Find the Best Optical Circulator

There are many brands in China making a wide range of optic fibers or circulators – a crucial device widely used for electronic applications. What that makes it a bit complex to choose the best one (optical circulator) is that all of them claim to offer high quality products for the most competitive prices. To help you with that, here we have curated a list of some tips that are very effective and anyone can apply them to select optical circulator.

Look for all the options

 There are many options that you will find in China when it comes to optic fibers. For example Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator one of the most widely used optic fibers for a wide range of electronic applications. The circulator is packed with host of features. If you are looking for an option that is durable, affordable and provide high quality performance, Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator is what you must consider.

 Check after sales support

Whatever option you choose, make sure the supplier you buy your Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator provides a good sale support. So when you have any problem with the product, you do not need to hire a technician. You can call to the supplier who will provide the right assistance to solve your problem. So buying Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator from such a supplier saves you a chunk of money you need to pay for hiring a technician.

The suitability of the fiber to your device

As optic fibers come with different features, and so are suitable for some certain types of devices, it is vitally important to make sure the Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator you buy is compatible with your device.

Compatibility

Types of fiber optic transceivers are getting richer, but the compatibility between different types has a great impact on the quality of network. It should be known that this product is designed to meet related international standards. Because. The circulators meeting international standards have no issues of compatibility.

Temperature adaptation

The temperature which is generated inside fiber optic transceivers is low, but as they are used in the Switches and computer room, the temperature fluctuates. It may get higher or lower. Too high or too low temperature adversely affects the parameters, for example optical power, optical sensitivity, etc. Polarization Insensitive Optical Circulator seems a best choice in this case. It is highly sensitive to fluctuation in power, and quickly adapts to the temperature.

 When you need to buy optic fibers, follow these tips that will surely profoundly help you choose the right circulator for you.

What is the application of Optical Circulator?

An optical circulator is a special fiber-optic component that can be used to separate optical signals that travel in opposite directions in an optical fiber, analogous to the operation of an electronic circulator. An optical circulator is a three-port device designed such that light entering any port exits from the next. This means that if light enters port 1 it is emitted from port 2, but if some of the emitted light is reflected back to the circulator, it does not come out of port 1, but instead exits from port 3.

Fiber optic circulators are non-reciprocal optics, which means that changes in the properties of light passing through the device are not reversed when the light passes through in the opposite direction. This can only happen when the symmetry of the system is broken, for example by an external magnetic field. A Faraday rotator is another example of a non-reciprocal optical device.

The Configuration of optical circulator

As shown in Fig.2(a), an optical circulator typically has three input or output ports. The signal light input into the port 1 is output from the port 2. The signal light input into the port 2 is output from the port 3. The optical circulator is often used with adding an FBG at the port 2 as shown in Fig.2(b). For reference, a composition of optical circulator is shown in Fig.3.

The application of Optical Circulator

An optical circulator is frequently used for an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), an optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) and a dense wavelength devision multiplexing (DWDM) network using an FBG, and a pulse stretcher, a pulse compressor, and a disprersion compensator using a chirped FBG. Optical Circulators can be used to achieve bi-directional transmission over a single fiber. Because of its high isolation of the input and reflected optical powers and its low insertion loss, optical circulators are widely used in advanced communication systems and fiber-optic sensor applications.

A Brief Introduction to Polarization Maintaining Isolators

Polarization maintaining isolator which ‘at times’ is also called fiber optic isolator and polarization maintaining optical isolator. It allows and keeps light to travel in one direction only. Its prime job is to prevent back reflection and backscattering in the reverse direction, for all states of polarization. In technical terms, the device is a two-port micro-optic isolator built with PM panda fiber. The isolator is commonly used in lasers, fiber optic systems, and amplifier systems. It actually prevents feedback which is not at all required in an optical oscillator.

Some devices in which this isolator is used

PM isolator is utilized all over the world majorly in communication systems, instrumentation applications, and polarization maintaining fiber-optic amplifiers. The isolator is also used in fiberoptic system testing and fiber-optic LAN system and CATV fiberoptic links.

Some of the many great features of these isolators

High isolation capacity

High Extinction Ratio

High Return Loss

Low Insertion Loss

Every fiber optic isolator has an optical fiber inside of it which is the most important component. Let’s now discuss how it works.

Optical fiber inside such isolators is a thin strand made of pure glass. It acts as a guide for the light wave over long distances by following the principle of ‘total internal reflection’. These are very effective when the light waves try to pass between two varying media.

The fiber inside these devices including polarization maintaining optical isolator is composed of two layers of glass – the core and the cladding. The core typically carries the actual signal of light and the glass layer surrounding the core is called cladding. In comparison to the core, the cladding has a lower refractive index. All of this causes total internal reflection successfully within the core.

What is transmitted over fiber?

Most fibers work in pairs where digital signals are encoded in light’s analog pulses preferably via the NRZ modulation – Non-Return to Zero. Since they operate in pairs, one is used to transmit while the other to receive, however, both signals can also be sent over a single stand.

Basic yet most used fiber types

SMF – Single Mode Fiber

MMF – Multi-Mode Fiber

The actual difference basically lies in the size of the core. SMF has an in-depth narrow core not more than 9µm which allows the propagation to just a single mode of light, whereas, MMF has a greatly wider core somewhere around 50µm and 62.5µm is also available on the market. MMF allows multiple modes of light to propagate. They both have their different characteristics along with their own pros & cons.

MPO/MTP Fiber Cables Data Center Applications

MPO/MTP Fiber Cable is offered for various applications for all networking and device needs like 100 Gig modules. It uses a high-density multi-fiber connector system built around precision molded MT ferrule. fiber-mart.com MPO fiber cables are available in UPC and APC finishes, support both multimode and single mode applications, and optional lengths available. Our MPO/MTP fiber cable is with push connector IEC 61754-7 and TIA/EIA 604-5A compliant and offer low cost per termination for high density applications. The MPO/MTP fiber cables are tested with guaranteed quality, and they can be installed easily, which saves time and money.

There are three types package MTP/MPO Cables: MPO/MTP Standard Trunk Cables, MPO/MTP Hybrid Trunk Cables, MPO/MTP Harnesses Cables and MPO/MTP Cassettes.

MPO/MTP Standard Trunk Cables

The MPO/MTP Trunk cable is designs for Data Center Applications. It is divided into round cable and flat cable with the outer diameter of 3.0 mm or 4.5 mm. The connector where this cable is terminated on is the so called MPO/MTP connector. All of MPO/MTP fiber optic patch cables are 100% optically tested for maximum performance. We have all lengths and connectors available.

fiber-mart.com offer singlemode and multimode (OM1, OM2, 10G OM3, 10G OM4) MPO/MTP Cable. Singlemode MPO/MTP cable is primarily used for applications involving extensive distances, 10G MPO/MTP cable provide 10 gigabit data transfer speeds in high bandwidth applications and they are 5 times faster than standard 50um fiber cable. Work with both VCSEL laser and LED sources. The meanwhile, we also provide 40G/100G MPO/MTP trunk cable.

MPO/MTP Hybrid Trunk Cables

fiber-mart.com MPO / MTP Hybrid Trunk Cable are available in SM (9/125), MM (50 or 62.5/125), 10Gig fiber types. You could select the corning fiber according to your own needs with the selection of 12/24 fiber cores. The cable is MPO/MTP on one end, with single-fiber connectors on another end, single-fiber connector interface available in SC, ST, LC, MTRJ in forms of Simplex or Duplex channeling. The fiber splitters are available in both plastic and metal fiber splitter, which give you various selections.

MPO/MTP Harnesses Cables

fiber-mart.com MPO/MTP harnesses cables are usually divided into three types of MPO/MTP-MPO/MTP connector, MPO/MTP-Common connector, MPO/MTP-Secure Keyed LC connector and 40G/100G MPO/MTP

Harnesses cable, according to different colors divided into SM, MM and 10G MM, you could select the corning fiber according to your own needs with the selection of 8/12/24 fibers.

The MPO/MTP Harnesses cables differs from Trunk cables, it works from trunk backbone assemblies to fiber rack system, and the trunk cable is high density back bone cabling. The MPO/MTP harnesses cable application for data centers requiring quick infrastructure deployment with extended reach that want to maintain bandwidth throughout the infrastructure, it design cater for up-scaling needs and future technologies growth, it’s the best solution, which covers all fiber optic cabling needs in all areas of Data Center.

MPO/MTP Cassettes

MPO fiber optic cassette, with SC, LC, ST, FC connectors, is a highly flexible fiber management unit that can be used stand alone or integrated into the MPO fiber optic patch panels. fiber-mart.com supply high quality MPO cassette which is designed to reduce installation time and cost for an optical network infrastructure in the premises environment. We are direct manufacturer of the MPO fiber optic cassette, that also supply rack chassis like 1U 19” rack for putting more MPO LGX cassettes.