Details of the differences between fiber-optic network cards and HBA cards

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

In the early SAN storage system, the server and the switch data transmission is through the fiber, because the server is the SCSI instruction to the storage device, can not take the ordinary LAN network IP protocol, so the need to use FC transmission, so this SAN is called FC-SAN, and later appeared in the IP protocol package SAN, can take the ordinary LAN network, so called IP-SAN, the most typical of which is now popular ISCSI.
Details of the differences between fiber-optic network cards and HBA cards
These two methods need to be heavy on the data block package unpacking operation, so the high-performance SAN system is the need to install a dedicated server on the unpacking work to reduce the burden on the processor card, this card we called It can provide a fiber interface (if it is an iSCSI HBA card is to provide a common RJ45 interface) for the corresponding switch connection; In addition, the HBA physical you can put it as NIC or PCI-E slot, so the use of this device is very a network card, many people also put it with ordinary network card or ordinary fiber-optic network card confused. Of course, some iSCSI HBA card can be used as a normal network card, but from the price to consider this is very extravagant.
The general definition of the HBA is the I / O adapter that connects the host I / O bus and the computer’s memory system. According to this definition, like the video card is connected to the video bus and memory, the network card is connected to the network bus and memory, SCSI-FC card is connected to SCSI or FC bus and memory, they should be regarded as HBA. HBA cards have FC-HBA and iSCSI HBA in the future there are other HBA cards, but HBA is usually used in SCSI. Adapter and NIC for FC; NICs are also used for Ethernet and Token Ring networks.
In fact, the network card is often referred to as a type of equipment in general, refers to the installation in the host, through the network cable (twisted pair, fiber optic cable, coaxial cable, etc.) and network switches (Ethernet switches, FC switches , ISCSI switches, etc.), or with other network devices (storage devices, servers, workstations, etc.) to form a network of hardware devices.
So, what is the name of the fiber-optic network card in the end refers to the fiber port HBA card?
In fact, we often say that the fiber-optic network card refers to the fiber channel network HBA card.
Due to the different transmission protocols, the card can be divided into three, one Ethernet card, the second is the FC card, the third is the iSCSI card.
• Ethernet card: The name of the Ethernet Adapter, the transmission protocol for the IP protocol, generally through the fiber optic cable or twisted pair and Ethernet switch connection. The interface type is divided into optical port and electrical port. Optical interface is generally through the fiber optic cable for data transmission, the interface module is generally SFP (transmission rate 2Gb / s) and GBIC (1Gb / s), the corresponding interface for the SC, ST and LC. The current interface type is RJ45, used to connect with the twisted pair, but also with the coaxial cable connection interface, but now has been used less.
• FC card: generally also called fiber optic card, scientific name Fibre Channel HBA. The transport protocol is a Fiber Channel protocol and is typically connected to a Fiber Channel switch through a fiber optic cable. The interface type is divided into optical port and electrical port. Optical interface is generally through the fiber optic cable for data transmission, the interface module is generally SFP (transmission rate 2Gb / s) and GBIC (1Gb / s), the corresponding interface for the SC and LC. The interface type of the electrical interface is generally DB9 pin or HSSDC.
• ISCSI NIC: The ISCSI HBA, which transmits the ISCSI protocol, has the same interface type as the Ethernet card.
Fiber-optic network card” generally refers to the FC HBA card, plug in the server, external storage with the fiber switch; and optical Ethernet card is generally called “fiber Ethernet card” is also inserted in the server, but it is an external Optical Ethernet switch.
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Optical module selection and use of skills

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

The optical module is composed of optoelectronic devices, functional circuits and optical interfaces. The optoelectronic devices include two parts: transmit and receive. Optical module can be photoelectric conversion, the transmitter side of the electrical signal into optical signals, and then transmitted through the optical fiber at the receiver and then converted into electrical signals. Any one optical module is a two-part function of the transceiver, photoelectric conversion and electro-optical conversion, so that both ends of the network equipment are inseparable from the optical module. Now a data center equipment is often million, in order to achieve the interconnection of these devices, optical modules indispensable. Today, optical modules have become a segment of the data center.
With the wide range of optical modules, more and more customers are concerned about the stability of the module itself and the characteristics of reliability. There are three popular optical modules on the market: original optical modules, second-hand optical modules and compatible optical modules. As we all know, the price of the original optical module is very high, many manufacturers can only discourage. As for the second-hand optical module, although its price is relatively low, but the quality is not guaranteed, often in the use of six months after the phenomenon of packet loss. As a result, many vendors have turned their attention to compatible optical modules. Indeed, compatible with the optical module in use, its performance and almost no original optical module, and the price is much cheaper than the original optical module several times, which is compatible with the optical module can be hot reasons. However, the goods on the market varies greatly, many businesses have shoddy, fish, the selection of the optical module caused a certain degree of difficulty, the following slim talk about the choice of optical modules.
First of all, the first question, how do we distinguish between new optical modules and second-hand optical modules? We mentioned above, second-hand optical module is often used in the use of six months after the packet loss, this is because of its optical power instability and decreased light sensitivity and other reasons. If we have an optical power meter, you can come up with a test to see if its optical power is consistent with the parameters on the data sheet. If the access is too large, the second-hand optical module.
And then observe the use of optical modules after sale. The life of a normal optical module is five years, and it is difficult to see the light module in the first year, but it can be seen in the second or third year of its use.
Second, see how the compatibility between the optical module and the device. Consumers before the purchase, the need to communicate with suppliers, inform them need to use in which brand of equipment.
Finally, we also need to see how the temperature module to adapt to the temperature. Optical module itself in the work of the temperature is not high, but it is the general working environment in the engine room or on the switch, the temperature is too high or too low will affect its optical power, light sensitivity and other parameters. In general, the optical module used in the temperature range of 0 ~ 70 ° C can, if in a very cold or extremely hot environment, you need to use industrial-grade -40 ~ 85 ° C optical module.
The use of optical modules
If the use of the process, found that the optical module function failure, first do not worry, to carefully check, analyze the specific reasons. General optical module function failure there are two, respectively, for the transmitter failure and receiver failure. The most common causes are mainly:
Optical module optical port exposed to the environment, the light port into the dust and pollution;
The use of fiber optic connector end has been contaminated, optical module secondary pollution port;
With the pigtail of the optical connector end use improper, end scratches and so on;
Use inferior fiber optic connectors.
Therefore, the correct purchase of optical modules, usually in use, but also pay attention to the optical module cleaning and protection. After the use of the usual use, it is recommended not to use when the plug on the dust plug. Because if the light contact is not clean, it may affect the signal quality, may lead to LINK problems and error problems.

FAQ of 40G wiring and XFP module

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40G network is more and more popular nowadays. Know the information about 40G optical transceiver module is important for you to deploy 40G Ethernet.
Question: what is the maximum transmission distance supported by 40GbE?
Answer: IEEE 40GBASE-X standard is described as follows:
40GBASE-SR4 transmission distance is 100m when using OM3 multimode fiber, can up to 150m when using OM4 multimode fiber. OM1 and OM2 transmission is not supported. 40GBASE-LR4 transmission distance is 10KM single mode fiber(Same fiber can be used in 10G single mode 10GBASE-LR standards). 40GBASE-CR4 supports a maximum transmission distance of 7 meters. However, due to the limitation of copper technology, may not be able to reach its maximum transmission distance. 40GBASE-KR4 supports backplane technology, transmission distance is 1 meters.
Question: Can 40G-LR4 optical modules be split into 4x10G connections?
Answer: No, 40G-LR4 module can not be divided into 4x10G. 40GBASE-LR4 uses 4 lambda (or wavelength) on a pair of single-mode fibers, and it doesn’t automatically divide itself into 4 pairs, unless the wavelength can be split. The uniqueness of 40GBASE-SR4 lies in its use of parallel optical fibers and allows simultaneous use of 4 pairs of parallel optical fibers. Both 40G-PLRL4 and 40G-PLR4 standards support 4x10G, using 12 core single-mode MTP ribbon fiber, and all of them can achieve the maximum transmission distance.
Question: What is the standard transmission performance of 40GbE PLRL4?
Answer: 40G parallel LR4 Lite (PLRL4) 10GBASE-LRL standard, the transmission distance is 1KM when using single-mode fiber. In addition, 40GbE PLRL4 optical devices connect the branch cables or single mode fiber boxes by using the 4x10G mode, can support 4 independent 10G-LR connections.
Question: What types of fiber are needed for PLRL4 and PLR4 optical modules?
Answer: PLR4 and PLRL4 use a 12 core MTP fiber connector, and require a APC single-mode 12 core MTP fiber. The fiber is equivalent to a 40G-SR4 MTP-MTP, the only change is the former uses single-mode optical fibers. UPC optical connector is another type of 12 core MTP connector, but it is not suitable for single-mode optical fiber. APC is the only viable choice for single-mode 12 core MTP fibers.
QSFP+ to QSFP+ and QSFP+ to 4SFP+ copper cable can achieve short distance connection, and for long distance connection, Fiberland provides a full range of optical transceivers, to meet the needs of various optical fiber type and distance.

How to choose the MPO system for your Fiber Infrastructure

Nowadays, the demand for high connection speeds is increasing at an intimidating pace. People need to send -and receive- more data than ever, and the technology that’s available to them often seems to just not being able to keep up.
Optical fiber seems to represent the best choice when it comes to offering higher speeds -currently required by data center networks. In contrast to multimode and single mode optical networks, which were typically based on duplex fiber links, parallel fiber (MPO-based) connectivity has now become the ideal go-to choice, since it allows the use of pre-terminated systems that can be used in a quick and efficient way.
Nonetheless, this type of connectivity had been used to deliver duplex connectivity combined with duplex modules and breakouts. The selection of multifiber interfaces responds to the demands of increasing applications and density.
This turnover has led to a general consideration of using duplex connectivity, but at the same time, it needs to fill the necessity of including a combination of parallel and duplex interfaces.
Apart from considering these new iterations, it is essential to have a solid grasp on the evolution of network equipment and on the advantages of implementing an infrastructure based on duplex connections.
That being said, let us walk you through the Ethernet Roadmap.
There are several applications housed in data centers, which implies that those applications will demand a diversity in the connectivity topologies. It is commonly known that most networks use duplex links, but the demand for higher speeds requires using duplex links into other groups of links, which is when the term of parallel links enter the debate.
Likewise, this new incorporation asks for certain cabling structures that can handle this new array of options while having the acute vision of what the new results from this structures may provide us with. In other words, what we’re now witnessing it’s a migration from arrangements that involve duplex links into parallel link options that need to cover the requirements of higher speeds.
The great thing about parallel links is that they reduce the operation costs at a significant rate. Since they offer higher connectivity densities, it reduces the power consumption to send that data. This type of connection multiplies the information been transported, so it offers a notable reduction in the time employed in the transmission of information.
The increase of speeds has also developed a certain progress when it comes to the outlining of separate transmission lanes. In the end, the throughput will be augmented due to the incorporation of additional fiber, or the multiplexing over just a single a fiber.
Each one of these parameters will determine the selection of the fiber media and the options for cabling that will become the most appropriate for your data center. The decision of moving from single and duplex links to parallel ones will surely affect your cabling choice. This may traduce to a significant cost at the beginning, but it shall be seen as an investment in the long term.
The first thing you need to do is to determine the desired capacity that your data center will possess in the short-term future. Your team can come in handy forecasting this scenario since it is very well equipped with considering, evaluating and even trying several technologies, platforms and routing strategies.
After coming to terms to answering each one of the specific requirements demanded by your new system, the pre-terminated MPO-based fiber cabling system will enable a quicker utilisation and a certain flexibility of configuration, along with a cabling topology that corresponds appropriately with the new direction and desired performance of your data center direction.
Multimode fiber is definitely the primary media choice for the enterprise data center. Each one of the diverse types of multimode fiber (MMF) will affect the scale and scope of the data center that can be supported when speeds increase, so you need to take that into consideration.
Aside from combining “lanes” to provide for higher and better link speeds, multiplexing several wavelengths on a single pair of fibers offers great results.
The great thing about this new structure of links is that it offers a new set of applications. Depending on the type of configuration, migrations can be enabled between duplex and parallel optics.
This quality is very eloquent when it comes to supporting the notion of the flexibility offered by parallel links. If new needs come up, you should be able to accommodate those necessities by making adjustments to your new structure in your data center.
Every decision that you make towards implementing parallel links will affect your structure -and space- of your cabling, so every single analysis that you can make before adding something to your new structure should be mandatory.
To put it mildly, you need to be aware of the physical space every new configuration is going to occupy. You can have lots of great ideas for new connections, but if you can’t afford the space for it, none of them will work out. But don’t worry, you just need to gain conscience of the dimensions of your cabling configurations so you can design them and implement them properly.
The good thing about duplex cables is that they are very flexible, so not all of these considerations should be thought of as limitations. You can work around them -and, trust us, you should!
By merely thinking about all of this, you could be concerned about the cost it implies, and we hear you. Notwithstanding, this is a cost you need to assume. Not only because the current situation demands it, but also because this decision will stand out as an investment for the near future.
New designs imply adjustments so you can incorporate duplex and parallel connections, meaning that perhaps new racks or more space for your cabling will be needed. This inclusion will also call for changes in the management of your team, which will have to face new ways to handle these devices.
Human beings tend to reject at first all sorts of changes, it’s in our nature, but if you are totally convinced on the benefits that each and single one of these procedures will bring to your data center in the future, you will work through them focused on having the vision aiming at an impending success. The current concerns need to be replaced with a relentless optimism that your work will be enhanced in the long run.
We hope you find this article very useful and that this information can help you increase the speed -and hopefully the quality- of your data center.

Do you know Fiber Optical Transponders?

As we know, transponder is important in optical fiber communications, it is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data and the maximum distance the signal can travel.
Functions of a Fiber Optical Transponder includes:
Electrical and optical signals conversion
Serialzation and deserialization
Control and monitoring
Applications of Fiber Optical Transponder
Multi-rate, bidirectional fiber transponders convert short-reach 10gb/s and 40 gb/s optical signals to long-reach, single-mode dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical interfaces.
The modules can be used to enable DWDM applications such as fiber relief, wavelength services, and Metro optical DWDM access overtay on existing optical infrastructure.
Supporting dense wavelength multiplexing schemes, fiber optic transponders can expand the useable bandwidth of a single optical fiber to over 300 Gb/s.
Transponders also provide a standard line interface for multiple protocols through replaceable 10G small form-factor pluggable (XFP) client-side optics.
The data rate and typical protocols transported include synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) (OC-192 SR1), Gigabit Ethernet (10GBaseS and 10GBaseL), 10G Fibre Channel (10 GFC) and SONET G.709 forward error correction (FEC)(10.709 Gb/s).
Fiber optic transponder modules can also support 3R operation (reshape, retime, regenerate) at supported rates.
Often, fiber optic transponders are used to for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include litter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty.Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements.
fiber-mart.com Provides Optical Transponders Solution
Let’s image that the architecture that can not support automated reconfigureability. Connectivity is provided via a manual Fibre Optic Patch Panel, a patch panel where equipment within an office is connected via fiber cables to one side (typically in the back), and where short patch cables are used on the other side (typically in the front) to manually interconnect the equipment as desired.  There is a point that Fibre Optic Patch Panel, people usually different ports patch panel , for example, 6, 8, 12, 24 port fiber patch panel and they according to different connectors to choose different patch panel, such as LC patch panel,  LC patch panel,  MTP patch panel…
optical network
The traffic that is being added to or dropped from the optical layer at this node is termed add/drop traffic, the traffic that is transmitting the mode is called through traffic. Regardless of the traffic type, note that all of the traffic entering and exiting the node is processed by a WDM transponder. In the course of converting between a WDM-compatible optical signal and a client optical signal, the transponder processes the signal in the electrical domain. Thus, all traffic enters the node in the optical domain, is converted to the electrical domain, and is returned to the optical domain. This architecture, where all traffic undergoes optical electrical (OEO) conversion, is referred to as the OEO architecture.

Differences between EPON and GPON

PON is the abbreviation of passive optical network, which only uses fiber and passive components like fiber splitter and combiner. EPON (Ethernet PON) and GPON (Gigabit PON) are the most important versions of passive optical networks, widely used for Internet access, voice over Internet protocol (VoIP), and digital TV delivery in metropolitan areas. Today we are going to talk about the differences between EPON and GPON.
Technology Comparison of EPON and GPON
EPON is based on the Ethernet standard 802.3 that can support the speed of 1.25 Gbit/s in both the downstream and upstream directions. It is well-known as the solution for the “first mile” optical access network. While GPON, based on Gigabit technology, is designated as ITU-T G.983 which can provide for 622 Mbit/s downstream and 155 Mbit/s upstream. GPON is an important approach to enable full service access network. Its requirements were set force by the Full Service Access Network (FASN) group, which was later adopted by ITU-T as the G.984.x standards–an addition to ITU-T recommendation, G.983, which details broadband PON (BPON).
As the parts of PON, they have something in common. For example, they both can be accepted as international standards, cover the same network topology methods and FTTx applications, and use WDM (wavelength-division multiplexing) with the same optical frequencies as each other with a third party wavelength; and provide triple-play, Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) and cable TV (CATV) video services.
Costs Comparison
No matter in a GPON or in an EPON, the optical line terminal (OLT), optical network unit (ONU) and optical distribution network (ODN) are the indispensable parts, which are the decisive factor of the costs of GPON and EPON deployments.
The cost of OLT and ONT is influenced by the ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optic module. Recently, the chipsets of GPON are mostly based on FPGA (field-programmable gate array), which is more expensive than the EPON MAC layer ASIC. On the other hand, the optic module’s price of GPON is also higher than EPON’s. When GPON reaches deployment stage, the estimated cost of a GPON OLT is 1.5 to 2 times higher than an EPON OLT, and the estimated cost of a GPON ONT will be 1.2 to 1.5 times higher than an EPON ONT.
We all know that the ODN is made up of fiber cable, cabinet, optical splitter, connector, and etc. In the case of transmitting signals to the same number of users, the cost of EPON and GPON would be the same.
Summary
Nowadays, since many experts have different opinions on EPON and GPON. Thus, there is no absolute answer to determine which is better. But one thing is clear: PON, which possesses the low cost of passive components, has made great strides driven by the growing demand for faster Internet service and more video. Also, fiber deployments will continue expanding at the expense of copper, as consumer demands for “triple-play” (video, voice and data) grow.

Functions of ONT and OLT in GPON Network

Gigabit passive optical network (GPON) is a point-to-multipoint access mechanism providing end users with the ability to consolidate multiple services onto a single fiber transport network. To realize this technology, many devices are used to support the network, such as optical splitter, ONT, OLT, etc. In this article, we will mainly discuss the functions of ONT and OLT in GPON network.
Functions of ONT and OLT
Optical network terminal (ONT) is an optical modem that connects to the termination point with an optical cable. It is used at end user’s premise to connect to the PON network on one side and interface with the user on the other side. Data received from the customer end is sent, aggregated and optimized by the ONT to the upstream OLT. ONT is also known as optical network unit (ONU). ONT is an ITU-T term, while ONU is an IEEE term. They both refer to the user side equipment in GPON network. A small difference between them might be the application locations. ONU can work in different temperature and weather conditions.
Optical line terminal (OLT) is the endpoint hardware equipment located in a central office of the PON network. Its basic function is to control the float information in optical distribution network (ODN) to go in both directions. OLT converts the standard signals used by fiber optic service (FiOS) to the frequency and framing used by PON system. In addition, it coordinates the multiplexing between the ONT conversion devices. There are two float directions for OLT system. One is the upstream direction to distribute different types of data and voice traffic from users. The other is the downstream direction which gets data, voice and video traffic from metro network or from a long-haul network and sends it to all ONT modules on the ODN.
How to Add or Delete ONT on OLT?
Way to Add ONT on OLT
If the password of an ONT is obtained, you can run the ONT add command to add the ONT offline. However, if the password is unknown, you can run the port portid ont-auto-find command in the GPON mode to enable the ONT auto-find function of the GPON port, and then run the ONT confirm command to confirm the ONT. When the ONT is added, you need to run the display ONT info command to see the current status of ONT. If the control flag is active,
Way to Delete ONT on OLT
When you need to delete the ONT on OLT, please use the delete command. Then ONT configuration data is deleted with the deletion of the ONT and the online ONT is forced offline. ONT can’t be deleted when it has been configured with other services. You need to unbind the service first before delete the ONT.
How to Troubleshoot ONT?
To troubleshoot the ONT, you should remember that the most important step is to connect your computer directly to the ONT to see if the problem goes away. You can use the Ethernet cable for connection. If the problem still exists, you can reconnect the ONT power supply to clear its internal cache. If the network can not be restored after the above methods, maybe you need to consult professionals for help.