What kind of department is the 10G home optical fiber network?

Inevitable demands for corporate networks, home networks, rapid and feasible Ethernet. Arrival 10G or more Internet technology In-commerce regional maturity and widespread use, 10G network department Narimoto already large drop, positive cause, partial household start-up consideration, pre-existing 1G optical fiber home network, but , 10G optical fiber network. Main text Provided by the general manager, a little useful technique, a typical 10G home optical fiber system plan, a convenient and economical 10G home optical fiber network.

Evaluation

In front of the 10G home network in the department, the most important policy is the progress of the home network. Calculators, stamping desks, and other peripherals? Typological type of mobile equipment demand Demand for wireless WiFi is overwhelming. Demand for Demand copy owned network equipment? Hope for regret, network equipment, equipment, a certain special function? 10G connection for the construction of the mourning village? Early 1G connection approval / disapproval Demand pending?

Department 10G Home optical fiber network Demand

Opposite 10G home optical fiber network, home-use multi-trillion exchange desk, wireless access point (AP). Rooting demand disparity, home network possible reduction meeting demand network service equipment, myriad network, PoE exchange desk and IP image server equipment.

How about 10G home optical fiber network selection best equipment?

Yugami Kachi, Household network exchange desk, Road Yuuki Japanese-free line connection point, Home optical fiber network The most important three-individual network, Wakaso profitable, effective network, quality, excellent equipment, indispensable and indispensable. A small router for wireless connection points, such as a network switch desk for the lower side general, a router, and a wireless connection point.

Household network switching desk

On the city side, there are many types of network switchboards, such as Nyosen trillion switchboards, Myriad switchboards, 25G switchboards, and PoE switchboards. Among them, the opposite 10G home optical fiber exchange desk, the available demand 10,000 trillion network exchange desk Japanese PoE exchange desk. What kind of talent is the most suitable network switch for home use? Available for the following three areas:

Performance

Network switch, multi-functionality, management type network switch, however, home network switch, non-necessary choice support, possessive, effective network switch, choice support, basic function, immediate availability, VLAN, security, etc. At the same time, Etsuya can think about the power over Ethernet. Stacking ability is possible. Higher level of activity, younger period of sympathy, or demand. Immutable Primitive Network Structure-based Architectural Demand. PoE equipment that can be used for power over Ethernet, PoE equipment for home network, power over Ethernet, etc. PoE equipment, power over Ethernet, etc. (immediate PoE conversion desk or PoE + conversion desk).

End port

Usually, it is a household network interchangeable end type electric port (immediately RJ45 end port) Wako port (Nyo SFP / SFP + end port). Among them, the general use of the optical module, Cat6 network connection, the general demand for the optical module, the use of the optical module, the SFP + the general supply of the SFP + the LC, the optical fiber, and the optical module. .. Except for the type of network switch for home use, the number of network switches for home use, the number of network switches, the demand factor, the non-demand connection, the general network equipment, the general network switch 8 or 12 network switch, the immediate demand Demand connection Multi-purpose network equipment or person Short-term internal network scholarship scholarship, Naoken Can select 24 end or 48 end omnibus exchange desk.

Home router

Road Yuuki Kosho Home network connection arrival Indispensable equipment in the Internet. A network switch for home use, a router for home use, and a lot of choices. The service provider (ISP), the service provider (ISP), the direct information, the bandwidth, the bandwidth, the bandwidth, the bandwidth, the bandwidth, and the bandwidth.Currently present 10G home optical fiber network, cause and choice of routers, minimal application, equipment, single SFP + end. Next, the demand route router type, the immediate route router, the router, the router, the router, the router, the router, the router, the router, the router, the router, and the router. Wireless line router available at the same time. Wireless or Ethernet connection, but the wireless WiFi signal is covered by the finite system. Causes of this, the home network of the home network, the wireless router.

Home wireless access point

Radio equipment is possible, and wireless access points are indispensable. At the time of the access point of the selected wireless line, it is necessary to contact the destination. WiFi signal demand overwhelming maximum area A wireless access point that can be selected by a wireless communication point. This trivial problem, available fixed demand, some wireless access points, this sample can be avoided, few or multiple wireless access points.

Enjoy 10G home optical fiber plan example

Completed after the selection of network equipment. 10G home optical fiber department. A typical 10G home network network department, a multi-purpose network facility in the home network, a total network connection line, a general 24 end-of-life network, a core network exchange desk, and a total network network of 24 units. The majority of the lips, the end equipment connection, the four trillion exchange desks, the SFP + the optical fiber PoE + the exchange desk, the road Yuuki, and the network recording desk (NVR). Medium PoE equipment such as garage, garage, etc., PoE + exchange desk connection is possible immediately.

How to distinguish the quality of MTP/MPO cable?

Generally, if you want to buy high-quality MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, you need to consider many factors, such as fiber core brand, connector, insertion loss, etc. The following is a list of five characteristics that high-quality MTP/MPO wires should have.

1. Branded Fiber Optic Core

MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords are usually deployed in relatively small spaces, such as telecommunications distribution boxes, data center cabinets, etc. In these cases, the fiber core needs to have a curved arc. Inferior fiber core bending usually results in loss of signal, resulting in interruption of transmission. But brand optical fiber is different. For example, Corning optical fiber can greatly improve bending performance, minimize signal loss, and achieve faster and more efficient optical fiber wiring and installation. Therefore, brand fiber cores are very important for MTP/MPO fiber jumpers.

2. MTP/MPO connector that meets industry standards

MTP/MPO fiber optic connectors can encapsulate 12, 24 or 72 fibers into one fiber to increase fiber density, so it is very popular in data centers with limited space. Industry-approved MTP/MPO connectors (such as US Conec or Senko connectors) can ensure the polarity of MTP/MPO cables and reduce insertion loss and return loss. The MTP/MPO connector conforming to industry standards is sturdy and durable, and can be recycled hundreds of times. The interface between the connector and the fiber jumper is round, so the fiber jumper can be carried out from any direction of the MTP/MPO connector port Wiring simplifies the wiring structure. Therefore, it is also very important to buy high-quality MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords and industry-approved MTP/MPO connectors.

3. Insertion loss

Insert Loss (Insert Loss) refers to the loss of the effective optical power of the link caused by the insertion of a connector or plug. It is one of the key factors affecting the performance of the optical fiber network. The smaller the insertion loss, the better the network performance. In general, the insertion loss of MTP/MPO multi-mode fiber patch cords should not exceed 0.6 dB, and the insertion loss of single-mode MTP/MPO fiber patch cords should not exceed 0.75 dB. For single-mode and multi-mode MTP/MPO fiber jumpers with low insertion loss (high quality), the insertion loss is usually required to not exceed 0.35 dB. When choosing MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, you can choose the supplier that provides the insertion loss test report.

4. Flame retardant grade

The shell of MTP/MPO fiber jumper can be made of different materials, these materials have different fire resistance, can be divided into polyethylene (Polyethylene), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-smoke halogen-free (LSZH), etc., Most of them have good flame retardant properties. If there are higher requirements for the installation environment, such as suspended ceilings and raised floors, it is best to choose MTP/MPO fiber jumpers with a higher flame retardant rating, so that it is not easy to burn or smoke in the event of a fire.

When purchasing MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, you can check the flame retardant rating directly on the protective jacket, and then choose the appropriate MTP/MPO fiber patch cord according to the actual applicable environment of the protective jacket and flame retardant rating of the fiber optic patch cord. For more information about the protective sleeve and flame retardant grade of optical fiber jumper, please refer to the following: Optical fiber jumper protective sleeve and flame retardant grade

5. Fiber patch cord test

MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord connector end face inspection: In order to ensure that the fiber optic connector has qualified or higher performance, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has developed the IEC 61300-3-35 standard to define whether the connector end face is qualified. The end face of the MTP/MPO jumper connector is divided into four areas: core area, cladding area, glue edge area and ferrule surface. It has requirements for scratches and blemishes in each area of ​​the connection. Scratches represent permanent linear surface features. Defects include all detectable non-linear features on the fiber, including particles, other debris, pits, debris, edge chipping, etc. The cleaner the end face, the better the cable quality. Therefore, if you want to buy the best MTP/MPO cable, you should choose fiber optic patch cords that pass end-face inspection, such as fast (FS) MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords.

If the connector size of the MTP/MPO cable cannot meet the requirements, problems such as system connection failure will occur. Therefore, it is very important to choose MTP/MPO fiber patch cords that have passed the 3D interferometer test.

In summary, before buying MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, we need to consider many factors. Nowadays, many suppliers can provide MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, but not all patch cords are quality guaranteed. In order to choose high-quality MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cords, please choose a MTP/MPO fiber optic patch cord that can meet all the above standards.

Tell You the Best Way to Clean Fiber Optic Connectors?

What are the Differences between a Hand Held Microscope and a Video Microscope?

A digital microscope is just a regular hand held microscope with a camera added to it. Usual magnification ranges from 100x to 800x, a popular magnification is 400x, although 200x can usually do the job. Sometimes a 200x may be a better choice as you can see more of the area that is being inspected. These microscopes can capture images and have documentation software. They provide a report on the inspection. A tech can look at the connector on a computer screen. Some digital microscopes may have a focus; some models have auto focus. All you need do to use this microscope is attach the connector to be inspected and view the results on a computer screen or tablet. This image can also be captured and sent remotely to another location for inspection. A hand held microscope provides basically the same function as the digital microscope but is limited to just the inspection. It cannot be viewed on a computer or tablet screen nor can it transmit the image for remote viewing. However, it will give you the basic information you need on whether or not the connector is dirty.

How Do I Clean a Connector?

Step #1

It is always best to turn off the laser. Never under any circumstances should you look into the end of any optical fiber while it is energized. Looking directly at the fiber can cause irrevocable eye damage.

Step # 2

Remove the protective cap and store it in a clean container. Make sure the container has a cover. This will protect the dust caps from dust or dirt.

Step # 3

The connector now needs a visual inspection with a microscope. Typical dust and debris cannot be seen with the naked eye. A hand held microscope or a video microscope will aid you in seeing the condition of the connector. Take the connector and attach it to either the video microscope or the hand held microscope of your choice. Take a look to see the condition. If you see debris or contamination you need to do some cleaning.

Step # 4

You need to be careful when cleaning or you may introduce more contamination. There are several ways to clean a connector. Wet Cleaning, Wet to Dry Cleaning, and Dry Connector Cleaners.

• Wet Cleaning

• Dry Connector Cleaners

• Wet to Dry Cleaning

Wet Cleaning

You must use reagent-grade 99% isopropyl alcohol and lint free cleaning wipes. The reagent grade alcohol can be purchased in bulk however, it is suggested that you use pre-moistened Isopropyl alcohol wipes as bulk isopropyl alcohol can become contaminated after time and will absorb water from the air. The individually packed wipes will avoid that problem. Dry Connector Cleaners – Also known as click type cleaner or a cassette cleaner are generally used for light contamination. They contain a lint free type of tape designed to clean. It is more difficult to eliminate contaminants using the dry method. Connectors can become electrically charged during this method and may even attract additional contaminants. Use the correct materials to avoid this. Wet to Dry Cleaning – In this process you need to use a small amount of reagent grade alcohol to remove debris and dust particles. Apply a small amount to a lint free fiber optic cleaning cloth. Wipe the connector from the wet area on the cleaning cloth, towards the dry section of the cloth. Do this using a straight across forward motion right across the connector. Never use a figure 8 motion when using this method. This method of moving straight across the lint free surface will remove debris and particles. It is important to note more is not better when using this method. Using too much cleaner could contaminate the surface to be cleaned. Remember, moderate wetness, wipe only straight across from wet to dry.

Always Avoid

• A cleaning process that will leave a residue on the connector or end-face.

• Twisting or pulling on the fiber cable forcefully.

• Looking directly at lasers.

• Touching the area that was cleaned

• Reusing cleaning wipes

• Touching cleaning materials

 Conclusion

You always need to inspect your connectors for contamination. Never assume a connector is clean. Connectors in many cases are the source of degradation. Contamination is your systems enemy. Use a microscope to do your inspection. Use a proven procedure and products to clean your connectors. Never trust the quality of your optical signal to guesswork. The only way that you can guarantee that your connectors are doing their job correctly is to; Inspect, clean, inspect.

Brief introduction of Armored vs. Non-Armored Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cable is offered with two different types of armor – aluminum interlocking armor for indoor cables and corrugated steel tape for outdoor cables. The armoring offers an added layer of mechanical protection to the cable. The differences between the two types of armor are the material that the armor is made of and the way it is applied to the cable. Aluminum interlocking armor is made of – you guessed it – aluminum – and it is wrapped helically around the fiber cable. This type of armor is used in indoor rated cables. The second kind of armor is corrugated steel tape. This armor is composed of coated, corrugated steel and it is folded

longitudinally around the cable. Corrugated steel tape is found in outdoor rated cables. Fiber optic cables are offered in many different cable constructions, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Armored cables have some benefits when you are installing them, and there are applications where it will be more cost effective to use this kind of cable. Some of these cables are more versatile than others, and if you have some on hand, it may help you to be ready for any situation (like an unexpected network outage). Other times the decision will come down to the engineer and the type of cable they prefer for the job. There are costs associated that can help you make the decision about the style you choose. Armored cable costs more than non-armored, but the labor to install it may be a less expensive, and this could make it more feasible to install armored cable. Below we will discuss a few different cable constructions and where you can pick between the two, armored versus non armored.

Distribution Cable

Distribution Cable is a tight buffered cable construction; inside of the outer jacket is a layer of aramid yarn and multiple fibers with 900um tight buffer jackets. Distribution cables are multi fiber cables that are used for indoor applications. The color of the outer jacket for single mode is typically yellow and for multimode the outer jacket can be orange, aqua, magenta or lime green depending on the multimode fiber type. Having a 900um jacket on the fibers allows you to be able to terminate a connector without having to do a build up on the fiber. Where this cable is being run indoors will help to determine if armor is needed. When fiber optic cable is being run in harsh environments or high traffic areas, it would be good to have the extra protection of the armored cable. This may be in a warehouse environment or it may be above a ceiling that is accessed regularly. Indoor armored cable uses an aluminum interlocking armor that helps to protect the fiber cable, along with increasing the durability of the fiber run. Sometimes you may be required to run cable in conduit indoors. The aluminum interlocking armored cable can help eliminate the need for conduit and it can be substituted for running conduit. Installing conduit can increase the cost of the installation because you have to spend time to place the conduit. Then you have to pull the cable through the conduit which means you have essentially doubled the labor costs to perform the installation. When using the aluminum interlocking armor cable, you now just have to pull your cable once. When running the armored cable in a cable tray or under a floor or through a ladder rack – any location where it will be installed and is not likely to be touched or disturbed then you probably do not have to use armored cable.

Indoor Outdoor Cable

Another style of cable that offers an armored or non-armored construction is Indoor Outdoor Cable. This type of cable typically has a black UV resistant outer jacket as well as moisture blocking material in the Kevlar or aramid yarn of the cable. There are two different types of indoor outdoor cable that you can use. One is known as distribution style and it will have 900um tight buffer like the indoor distribution cable we talked about above. Indoor/Outdoor distribution is the same construction as the above mentioned distribution cable, except it has a special black UV rated jacket to protect the fibers inside from the sun’s rays.

Indoor Outdoor is also available as a Dry Loose Tube construction. This is where the fibers have a 250um acrylate coating only, and they are arranged in separate buffer tubes with 12 color coded bare fibers in each tube. These are similar to the next category – Outside Plant Cable, but they do not contain any water blocking gel, hence the name “Dry”. Similar to the distribution style cable, this type of cable can be armored or non-armored. The armor used in the cable is aluminum interlocking armor. This type of cable cannot be direct buried, but the armor gives the fiber some extra protection in rugged environment settings. Oftentimes installers will use this when they need to run indoors and some distance outdoors as well. Rather than needing an interconnect box at the building entrance to transition from outdoor to indoor cable, this type of cable can be run in conduit outdoors and then be brought inside without transitioning to an indoor rated cable.

This type of non-armored cable can be used in multiple applications because it is so flexible in the ways that it can be deployed. Since you can run this cable inside or outside, some contractors will purchase this type to keep on hand because they can use it for a variety of applications. This allows them the flexibility to handle multiple situations without having to carry several different spools of cable.

Outside Plant (OSP) Cable

Outside Plant Cable is a cable construction that typically has gel or Icky Pic coating the bare fibers to give it extra water blocking protection. OSP cables are run either underground or in aerial applications. These gel filled cables can only be run inside a building up to 50 feet because of the toxicity of the fumes and smoke produced when it burns. Building codes regulate this distance and the cable run will need to be inspected once it is installed. The way that this cable is installed will help to determine if you will need armor or not. Aerial and buried applications can use either armored or non-armored outdoor fiber optic cable. Here we will focus on when the cable is buried in the ground.

When you talk about outside plant cable being buried, you have a couple options as to how you can accomplish the installation. The first option has to do with non-armored cable and involves the use of conduit or innerduct. When you are running conduit underground an armored fiber is not needed but can be used if desired, because it will give the cable extra ruggedness and it will help with locating the cable later.

Armored outside plant cable is made so that it can be direct buried and it does not require the use of conduit. This type of cable construction uses corrugated steel tape for the armoring. When you bury the cable, please know how deep the frost line is in the area where you are located because the cable will need to be buried below that line. The cable is buried below the frost line so it isn’t damaged when the ground freezes and “frost heaves”. Not only is armored cable suitable for direct burial, it is also used for rodent protection. So if you have rodent trouble, it would be wise to use the armored cable. Keep in mind that the armored cable will need to be bonded and grounded for protection from lightning strikes, especially when it is used for an aerial application.

What does bonding and grounding the cable do? Basically, bonding and grounding an armored fiber optic cable protects the cable and the equipment that it connects to from electrical currents such as current from faulty or exposed wiring or lightning strikes.

Although this article does not go into the details of all applications, it does give you an idea of a few different cable constructions as well as armored versus non-armored applications. Please remember that when you are doing fiber optic cable installs, whether it is your first time or if you are a seasoned veteran, you should make sure to do your homework on the geography of the location where you will be installing, as well as mapping the path where you need to do the installation.

Whether is worth to Use EDFA Amplifier in Long WDM System?

Introduction to EDFA Amplifier

EDFA amplifier, also referred to as erbium-doped fiber amplifier, is basically composed of a length of Erbium-doped fiber (EDF), a pump laser, and a WDM combiner. When it works, the pump laser with 980 nm or 1480 nm and the input signal around 1550 nm can be combined by the WDM combiner, then transmitted and multiplexed into the Erbium-doped fiber for signal amplification. The pump energy can be transmitted in the same direction as the signal (forward pumping), or the opposite direction to the signal (backward pumping), or both direction together. And the pump laser can also using 980 nm or 1480 nm, or both. Taking the cost, reliability and power consumption into account, the forward pumping configuration with 980nm pump laser EDFA amplifier is always the first choice to enhance the signals for a long WDM system.

Currently, utilizing WDM technology to deploy the optical network has received widespread attentions, which enables higher capacity for data transmission. However, the technology is also limited by the transmission distance. When deploying a long WDM system, the signal power would still become weak due to the fiber loss. In order to address the issue, using EDFA amplifier to directly enhance the WDM signals would be a good choice for current and future optical network needs. The optical network combining WDM technology and EDFA module together can transmit multiple signals over the same fiber, at lengths up to a few hundred kilometers or even transoceanic distances. To better know how does EDFA amplifier work in the long WDM system, let’s learn the EDFA amplifier knowledge and analyze the performance of WDM system bonding with the EDFA module.

Analysis of WDM Network Without EDFA Amplifier

Before analyzing WDM network deployed with EDFA amplifier, it is necessary to know the basic configuration of an original WDM network, as shown in the figure below. We can learn that four signals from different channels are combined by the optical combiner. And then, the integrated signals are transmitted through an optical fiber. Thirdly, the signals are split into two parts by the splitter. One part passes through the optical spectrum analyzer for analyzing signals, and the other one goes through the photo detector to be converted into electrical signal and then be observed by the electrical filter and scope. However, in the process, the signal power gets highly attenuated after being transmitting at long distance.

Analysis of WDM Network Using EDFA Amplifier

By using the EDFA amplifier, we can easily overcome the attenuation of long WDM network. From the following figure, we can learn that EDFA amplifiers act as booster amplifier and pre-amplifier to enhance the signal, so that system will no longer suffer from losses or attenuation. Therefore, if you need to deploy a long WDM system, it is highly recommended to deploy the EDFA amplifiers in the system that features flat gain over a large dynamic gain range, low noise, high saturation output power and stable operation with excellent transient suppression. It is an undoubtedly ideal solution with reliable performance and relatively low cost to extend the WDM network transmission distance.

Conclusion

It is well know that the signal power would be greatly attenuated when the transmission distance is long enough. Hence, when deploying a long WDM network, it is definitely necessary to use the EDFA amplifier to enhance the signal strength, allowing for the long transmission distance. As a preferable option, the EDFA amplifier with very low noise is relatively insensitive to signal polarization and easy to realize signal amplification.

Three different types of QSFP28 Optical Transceiver

The appearance of the QSFP28 optical transceiver is the same as that of the 40G QSFP + optical transceiver. The difference is that QSFP28 optical transceiver can transmit optical signals up to 100G. Therefore, QSFP28 optical transceiver has become the mainstream 100G optical transceiver and the preferred solution for network upgrade of 100G. This article describes the differences between the QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver, the QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver, and the QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver.

The Definition of Different Types of QSFP28 Optical Transceiver:

QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver is a high-speed, low-power product with a hot-swappable QSFP form factor with built-in digital diagnostics and eight optical fibers, each with a data rate of 25Gbps.

QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver is a parallel 100G optical transceiver with the advantages of high port density and low cost. If you need a short distance transmission of optical transceivers for 100G network upgrade, you can choose QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver.

QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver, an optical transceiver with transmission distances up to 2km, provide an ideal solution for the ever-increasing transmission distance requirements of very large data centers and will lead the use of single-mode optical fibers in the data center.

QSFP28 Optical transceiver Differences:

1. Transmission Methods

As we all know, QSFP28 optical transceiver usually has four transmission channels, and each channel data rate is 25Gbp. This transmission is very similar with 40G QSFP + optical transceiver transmission. 100G QSFP28 SR4 and 100G QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceivers are 12-way MTP interface, while the realization of the 8-way fiber 100G transmission is bidirectional. But the 100G QSFP28 LR4 optical transceivers cannot do this, QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver is transmitted at the same time in two uses of LC duplex fiber in one direction for 100G transmission.

2. Transmission Media and Transmission Distance

QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver, QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver and QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver transmission distance are also different. QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver operates at 850nm and is used with OM3 or OM4 multimode fibers for transmission distances of up to 70m with OM3 fibers and up to 100m with OM4 fibers. QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver is usually used with single-mode fiber, which operates at 1310 nm and has a maximum transmission distance of up to 2km. QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver, is generally used with a 12-way MTP interface and single-mode optical fiber with a transmission distance of up to 500m.

3. The Wiring Structure Is Different

Optical transceiver transmission in the optical fiber routing has a very important role. Because the QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver and the QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver are used for short-distance transmission and long-distance transmission respectively, their wiring structures are different. The former requires multi-fiber cabling based on a 12-way MMF MTP interface, while the latter requires only a traditional two-fiber SMF cabling. In this case, the conversion between multimode fiber and single-mode fiber is very complicated because they use a completely different wiring structure.

Although QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver operates in single-mode fiber, its wiring structure is the same as that of the QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver. Using the QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver saves conversion costs between multimode and single-mode without changing existing cabling structures.

4. Different Working Principle

(1) How QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver works:

The working principle of the QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver is almost the same as that of the QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver. The difference is that the QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver operates on single-mode fiber while the QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver operates on OM4 multimode fiber.

(2) How QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver works:

QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver transmits signals at the transmitting end; the electrical signals are converted into optical signals by the laser array and then transmitted in parallel on the ribbon multimode fiber. Upon reaching the receiving termination, the photo detector array converts the parallel optical signals into parallel electrical signals.

(3)How QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver works:

QSFP28 LR4 optical transceivers are typically used with LC single-mode fiber optic cables to convert 4×25Gbps electrical signals into 4 LAN WDM optical signals and then multiplexed into a single channel for 100G optical transmission. At the receiving end, the module demultiplexes the 100G optical inputs into 4 LAN WDM optical signals, and then converts them into 4 channels of electrical signal output.

Summary:

QSFP28 SR4 optical transceiver is suitable for use in 12-way MTP fiber cabling systems and also for short-distance transmission of OM3, OM4 multimode fiber. QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver is also suitable for transmission with 12 MTP interfaces, but it is suitable for use with single-mode fibers and can transmit distances up to 500m. QSFP28 LR4 optical transceiver is for data transmission up to 2km.