Do You Know How to Save Fibers in Your Networks?

As we all know, in order to meet the increasing demand for higher bandwidth and faster transmission speed, more and more fiber optic cables have been put into use. However, as fiber infrastructures are getting more complicated, only adding numerous cables is no longer a feasible and economical option. Service providers and network managers are always seeking for more cost-effective ways to enhance network capacity. Then do you know how to save fibers in your network to achieve an economical cabling? Here may have the answer you want to know.

A Key Technology—CWDM

CWDM stands for Course Wave Division Multiplexing. It can combine or multiplex more than one wavelength over one fiber. The CWDM is limited to 16 wavelengths and is typically deployed at networks up to 80 km since optical amplifiers cannot be used due to the large spacing between channels. And it has a wide spectrum and accommodates eight channels. This wide spacing of channels allows for the use of moderately priced optics. Generally, CWDM is used for lower-cost, lower-capacity, shorter-distance applications where cost is an important decision factor.

A Critical Component—CWDM Mux/Demux

The most common use of CWDM Mux/Demux is to increase fiber networks capacity without at the expense of deploying more fiber cables, which service providers and network managers are seeking for. CWDM Mux/Demux modules are bidirectional optical multiplexers which enable several optical signals at different wavelengths to pass through a single fiber strand. It can combine up to 18 different wavelength signals coming from a single optical fiber to 18 separate optical fibers. It’s this feature that makes CWDM Mux/Demux a good choice for high bandwidth but low cost solution. Here are two common types of CWDM Mux/Demux.

CWDM Mux/Demux Over Dual Fiber

The CWDM Mux/Demux over dual fiber is a universal device capable of coming up to 18 optical signals into a fiber pair. It can support up to 18 CWDM wavelengths between ITU-T G.694.2 1270 nm to 1610 nm in 20 nm increments or ITU-T G.652 1270 nm and 1290 nm. This CWDM Mux/Demux has good performance and excellent environmental stability. And it is typically used with optical amplifiers.

CWDM Mux/Demux Over Single Fiber

The CWDM Mux/Demux over single fiber can multiplex up to 18 optical single fibers and support a brand architecture such as scalable point-to-point links to two fiber protected rings. It can multiplex several channels such as 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 16 and 18 channels on a single fiber, data rates or protocols over single fiber optic link without interfering with each other. Besides, this CWDM Mux/Demux is simple to be installed and requires no configuration or maintenance.

Advantages of CWDM Over DWDM

Some people may have doubt that DWDM is also a good solution for expanding network capacity. Of course it does. However, comparing these two technologies—CWDM and DWDM, CWDM has more advantages. The main advantage of CWDM is the cost of the optics which is typically one third of the cost of the equivalent DWDM optics. CWDM devices are popular with low cost, less power, less precision and lower maintenance requirements. In terms of economic scale, not so many requirements need to exceed 80 wavelengths, which means that CWDM is easier to be accepted by many common customers.

Summary

CWDM Mux/Demux is a good solution for expanding network performance while keeping the cost low since you can send the same amount signals with fewer fibers. fiber-mart.COM offers a complete portfolio of CWDM Mux/Demux over dual fiber or signal fiber with package types of plastic ABS module cassette, 19” 1RU rack and LGX metal box. Welcome to enquire for more detailed information.

Fiber Optic Transceivers with CWDM Technology

CWDM (coarse wavelength division multiplexing) is the low-cost type of WDM technology, which is often used in metropolitan area network access networks. It is considered to be a flexible and economical solution to expand the existing network capacity without adding additional optical fibers. There are many devices deploying with CWDM technology used in telecommunication applications, like CWDM modules and CWDM Mux/Demux, to provide a cost-effective way for migrating to higher-rate infrastructures. This post will mainly introduce several fiber optic transceivers with CWDM technology.

Overview of CWDM Transceiver and Its Working Principle

CWDM transceiver is a hot-pluggable transceiver that combines with CWDM technology usually used to achieve connectivity between existing network equipment and CWDM Mux/Demux. This type of transceiver module can provide high-capacity bandwidth by carrying up to 16 channels on a single fiber in the spectrum grid from 1270 nm to 1610 nm with a 20 nm channel spacing, when used with CWDM Mux/Demux.

Similar to the working principle of prism, there is a multiplexer and a demultiplexer at the either end of the whole CWDM system. A multiplexer is at the transmitting end to combine several signals together, and a demultiplexer is at the receiving end to split the signals apart. The more detailed information can be see in the following image.

Several CWDM Transceiver Types

Actually, with the increasing need for CWDM technology in different applications, there are many types of fiber optic transceivers with CWDM technology, such as CWDM SFP, CWDM SFP+, CWDM XFP, CWDM X2, and CWDM XENPAK, etc. In the following part I will mainly introduce CWDM SFP, CWDM SFP+ and CWDM XFP.

CWDM SFP: CWDM SFP is hot-pluggable and transceiver component which is compliant with SFP MSA and IEEE 802.3 & ROHS. The transceiver uses a LC single-mode fiber to achieve data rates of 1G, 2G and 4G for the maximum link length of up to 200 km. You can connect the CWDM SFPs to CWDM passive optical system, add/drop multiplexer (OADM) modules or multiplexer and demultiplexer plug-in modules using single-mode fiber optic cables.

CWDM SFP+: CWDM SFP+ as shown below is based on the popular SFP form factor, which is an MSA standard build. It is designed for 10G Ethernet applications in data center, campus and metropolitan area access networks where require flexible and cost-effective systems. This type of CWDM module can reach a maximum speed of 11.25Gbps and is commonly used to support up to eight channels of 10G Ethernet over single-mode fiber at the wavelength including 1490 nm, 1510 nm, 1530 nm,1550 nm, 1570 nm, 1590 nm and 1610 nm.

CWDM XFP: CWDM XFP as shown in the image below, compatible with XFP MSA, is designed for single-mode fiber and operates at a nominal wavelength of CWDM technology, from 1270 nm to 1610 nm. CWDM XFP is mainly used for typical routers and switch line card applications.

Advantages of CWDM Transceiver

Cost-saving—As we have mentioned above, CWDM module combining with CWDM technology can share a single fiber with several optical connections, thus expanding the bandwidth of fiber and allowing multiple applications to run over the same resources, which saves more cost than using other types of optical transceivers. Besides, due to the broader channel spacing in CWDM, cheaper uncooled lasers are used in CWDM modules, giving them another cost advantage.

Increasing Network Capacity—By transmitting multiple data channels using separate optical wavelengths on the same optical fiber, CWDM modules can greatly increase network capacity. They reduce network equipment inventories, and eliminate the need to maintain extra units or devices with various fiber types for network repairs or upgrades. They can also enable the network to upgrade and to be in use over a longer time without replacing the whole network by providing interchangeable fiber connectors which can easily adapt to and modify any existing network.

Low Power-consumption—Another advantage of CWDM module is low power-consumption. CWDM lasers without thermoelectric cooler and temperature control function, it is possible to significantly reduce the power consumption. For example, a DWDM based module each laser is about 4 W power consumption, while the cooler CWDM module laser consumes only 0.5 W.

Summary

CWDM transceiver provides high speed and physical compactness that today’s networks require while delivering the deployment flexibility and inventory control that network administrators demand. fiber-mart.COM offers a wide range of CWDM modules, including the common used three types we have mentioned above, and the types we don’t discussed in detail, like CWDM X2, CWDM XENPAK, and CWDM GBIC. All of these modules are fully compatible with the original brand ones. You can come to fiber-mart.com for more detailed information.

Issues You Should Consider to Buy The Right Optic Transceiver

The optical modules are important components in networking, and specifying the right modules can heavily influence overall system performance. There issues you should consider when choosing a fiber optic module are listed below.

1.The Most Important Design Considerations – Density and Form Factor

You can buy transceivers that plug into the faceplate, or you can buy embedded, mid-board optical modules. You may want to choose a mid-board module if you want more density at the faceplate or for greater electrical performance because you’re able to put the module closer to the IC on the circuit board and minimize electrical losses.

2.Bit-rate Options

The choices range from the small form-factor pluggable (SFP) module at 1Gb/s up to the CFP module at 100Gb/s. Some parallel optical modules have incoming signal rates of 25Gb/s, and there are mid-board modules that use 12 lanes of 25Gb/s to deliver 300Gb/s. You can also choose the QSFP module with four channels of 10 Gigabits each, or the SFP+ module as a single 10Gb/s lane.

3.The Length of the Optical Signal to Travel

This leads to a decision between an Active Optical Cable (AOC) and a transceiver, and using single-mode or multi-mode transceiver. An AOC is a single unit that consists of two transceivers and a piece of optical fiber that joins them. With a transceiver, you take a passive fiber cable and connect it to the transceiver. For distances less than 20 to 30 meters, an AOC is probably the less expensive choice. If you want the signal to go more than 30 meters, you’d more likely use the transceiver with a passive fiber cable. Single-mode transceiver used for long reach transmission and multi-mode transceiver for short reach.

4.Heat Transfer and Power Consumption

Every optical module generates heat, but some modules run considerably cooler than others. Engineers need to assess how much power is being consumed and how much heat is being generated, as well as whether the system has the capability to remove that heat. With cooler optical modules, the equipment saves direct power but also can have a substantial impact on reducing air conditioning costs for the data center.

5.Compatibility

Transceivers are designed by a multi-vendor consortium with open specifications. It’s usually preferable to match your SFP to your switch vendor (I.E. a Cisco SFP in a Cisco switch), but you can work around that if you’re willing to risk your support/warranty to save a few bucks on transceiver costs.

Buy from a reputable third party dealer, and you get samples and guarantees. I’ve saved tens of thousands of dollars buying third party optics, and the failure rate is precisely the same as with vendor optics in my experience. The better third party transceivers are typically put together on the same manufacturing lines as the vendor branded ones.

By considering form factor, density, reach, bit rate, standards compliance, heat transfer, Network installers can properly evaluate optical modules and specify the right one for the job.

QSFP28 Optical Transceiver Is a More Ideal Solution for 100G Optical Network?

Before the advent of the 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver (an optical transceiver that can be used to support 100G transmission), the development direction of the 100G network is 10G → 40G → 100G. After the 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver appears, 10G → 25G → 100G or 10G → 25G → 50G → 100G development model began to spread widely in the industry, and now there are already some data centers began to adopt this method to achieve 10G to 100G upgrade. There are all kinds of 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers in the market, like QSFP28 CWDM4, QSFP28 PSM4, QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4, and QSFP28 100GBASE-LR4, etc.

So, the question is why 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver is so ideal for 100G optical network? Will QSFP28 optical transceiver completely replace other 100G optical transceiver? Will QSFP28 optical transceiver change the development of data center? Maybe the post can give you an answer if you are interested

The Advantages of QSFP28 Optical Transceiver

The cost and power consumption of data center is one of the important factors that its builder needs to consider, which is also an important driving force for the development of the optical communication market. Reviewing the development of 100G optical transceivers, the packaging styles (CFP, CFP2, CFP4) and the standard development and improvement also mainly focus on low cost and low power consumption. The QSFP28 optical transceiver meets these requirements. Compared with other 100G optical transceivers, QSFP28 optical transceiver has following advantages: port density, power consumption, and cost.

Port density

The first generation of 100G optical transceiver is a very large CFP optical transceiver, and then appeared CFP2 and CFP4 optical transceiver, CFP4 optical transceiver which is the latest generation of 100G optical transceiver, the width of only CFP optical transceiver 1/4, package Size and QSFP + optical transceiver package size. The QSFP28 optical transceiver is packaged in a smaller package than the CFP4 optical transceiver, which means that the QSFP28 optical transceiver has a higher port density on the switch. In fact, a total of 36 QSFP28 optical transceivers can be installed on the front panel of a 1RU switch.

Power Consumption

The power consumption of QSFP28 optical transceiver usually does not exceed 3.5W while that of other 100G optical transceivers is usually between 6W and 24W. From this, QSFP28 optical transceiver consumes much lower power than other 100G optical transceivers.

Cost

Now the data center is mainly 10G network architecture, the interconnection solutions are mainly 10GBASE-SR optical transceiver and duplex LC multimode fiber jumper, if the existing 10G network architecture based on the direct upgrade to 40 / 100G network Will save a lot of time and cost. Therefore, one of the major interconnection trends in data centers is to upgrade from 10G network to 40 / 100G network without changing the existing duplex multimode infrastructure. In this case, MPO / MTP branch able optical cable is undoubtedly the ideal solution for 10G to 40 / 100G upgrade.

Will QSFP28 Optical Transceiver Change Data Center?

QSFP28 optical transceiver can be used without going through the 40G directly from 25G to 100G. In addition, the four 25Gb / s transmission channels of the QSFP28 optical transceiver also comply with the 100G Ethernet standard. In the 100G optical fiber link consisting of QSFP28 optical transceivers, the 100G uplink is composed of four 25G links, and the network structure of each 25G downlink is exactly the same as that of the 10G network. The transmission capacity of the entire network greatly increased. Therefore, the 10G → 25G → 100G upgrade can greatly simplify the data center cabling system and reduce the cost and cable density of the cabling system compared with the 10G → 40G → 100G upgrade.

Does QSFP28 Completely Replace Other 100G Optical Transceivers

Although the QSFP28 optical transceiver has many advantages, it is only one of many solutions for a 100G network and is best for specific applications such as data centers and server rooms. Therefore, other 100G optical transceivers will also have a place in the 100G network. For more details about 100G optical transceivers, please visit Infiberone.

Can I Use Cat5e Cable With Cat6 Patch Panel?

As a key component of copper cabling system, copper patch panel is popular with people. And there are Cat5e patch panels and Cat6 patch panels available on the market. It is not difficult to understand that Cat5e patch panel is used with Cat5e patch cable, while Cat6 patch panel is used with Cat6 patch cable jointly. But can I use Cat5e patch cable with Cat6 patch panel or Cat6 patch cable with Cat5e patch panel? This article will tell you the answer.

Overview of Cat5e and Cat6 Patch panel

First, let’s have a brief overview of Cat5e patch panel and Cat6 patch panel. Cat5e patch panel is compliant with TIA/EIA 568 industry specifications and is used for high speed LAN transmission. In addition, Cat5e patch panels are available in 6-port and 8-port module groupings, in 8, 12, 24, and 48-port sizes. The high density panel design can be mounted to standard racks or cabinets, accommodate top, bottom or side cable entry, and also save rack space. While Cat6 patch panel is specially designed for 1G Ethernet applications. It also meets the TIA/EIA 568 industry specification and each patch panel terminates with standard 110 termination tools on the rear, which allows quick installations. Cat6 patch panel on the market covers 12, 24, 48, and 96-port configurations.

Can I Use Cat5e Patch Cable With Cat6 Patch Panel?

In fact, there isn’t much difference between these two types of patch panels. What matters is the difference of wire gauge specified between Cat5e and Cat6 patch cables. It’s well known that both Cat5e and Cat6 patch cable contain four twisted pairs of copper wires, but Cat6 patch cable is thicker than Cat5e. This is because there is a longitudinal separator inside Cat6 patch cable which isolates each of the four pairs of twisted wire from the others, reducing crosstalk and allowing for better signal. And another reason is that Cat6 patch cable utilizes copper conductor which has larger diameter than that of Cat5e patch cable. So you may ask, if I use Cat5e patch cable with Cat6 patch panel, will it be too loose? Slightly Yes, but electrically it will still make contact and work well.

Can I Use Cat6 Patch Cable With Cat5e Patch Panel?

Sometimes you may also encounter the situation where you want to use Cat6 pacth cable with Cat5e patch panel. The content above has mentioned that Cat6 patch cable is thicker than Cat5e patch cable. In spite of the size difference between them, the fact is that Cat6 patch cable is backward compatible with Cat5e patch cable. Therefore, you can feel free to use Cat6 patch cable with Cat5e patch panel.

Note

When plugging Cat5e patch cable on a Cat6 patch panel, the Cat5e patch cable is small enough that it is possible to get what looks like a good connection. However, the contact is not actually good or the plug is not in the right place. While plugging Cat6 patch cable on a Cat5e patch panel, the larger wire may end up bending or even breaking the port. Therefore, in both cases, it is necessary to install and test each connection carefully to make system work fine.

Conclusion

In theory, doing like these is not recommended. Using Cat5e patch cable with Cat5e patch panel or Cat6 patch cable with Cat6 patch panel will get the best performance. fiber-mart.COM provides both high-density Cat5e patch panels for Fast Ethernet applications and Cat6 patch panels for 1G/10G Ethernet applications, such as 24 port Cat5e patch panel, 48 port Cat5e patch panel, 24 port Cat6 patch panel, 48 port Cat6 patch panel, etc. In addition, Cat5e shielded patch panel, Cat5e unshielded patch panel, Cat6 shielded patch panel and Cat6 unshielded patch panel are available.

Who invented the sex doll?

Sex dolls have long been an adjunct brought on stag and hen nights out.

But who invented them and why? Here is everything we all know …

Who invented the sex doll?
The original inventor of the sex doll is unknown.

The earliest sex doll is credited to Dutch sailors within the 17th century who used a doll made from cloth to alleviate sexual tension during long sea voyages.

The first recorded magnify doll appeared in psychiatrists Iwan Bloch’s book, “The Sexual lifetime of Our Time“.

The book, published in 1908, described the doll to be used for sexual purposes.

After the sexual revolution of the late sixties, advertisements began to seem in magazines which allowed you to pick dolls with different hair colours and designs to suit the customer’s desires.

Did Hitler create sex dolls?
During war 2, it had been rumoured that Hitler ordered sex dolls to be supplied to German troops fighting on the battlefront .

According to the rumours the Borghild Project aimed toward combating the spread of syphilis among Nazi troops by supplying the lads with sex dolls.

The project was supposedly inspired by Heinrich Himmler’s 1940 memo to Hitler that there was a syphilis problem within the houses of prostitution in Paris.

In the report, he wrote, “The greatest danger in Paris is that the widespread and uncontrolled presence of whores.”

Hitler supposedly approved the project to supply dolls to the soldiers who were to move them in their backpacks to permit them to avoid Parisian brothels.

Hitler allegedly gave his approval to the project, and designers set to figure creating a doll – or “gynoid” – under the supervision of Franz Tschackert at the German Hygiene Museum.
The lack of evidence supporting this theory led it to being deemed a hoax within the early 2000s.

the most supporting evidence for the project were two photographs purportedly rescued from the trash, which were later disproven as a hoax.

Further to the present , no employee at the German Hygiene Museum had recalled the project ever existing when asked.