FTTx Solution: What is the difference between ONU and ONT?

by http://www.fiber-mart.comIn the project of the Optical Fiber Access Network, the end-user has two nouns, ONU and ONT. However, many people are not quite sure what the two words mean. The optical fiber is connected to the ONU through the passive optical network equipment (ODN). After the branch is connected to the ONU, the ONU acts as an optical port. The user port is used as the Ethernet port to directly access the Internet. First, we should know these nouns: FTTH: fiber to the home, FTTO: fiber to the office, FTTB: fiber to the building, OLT: Optical line terminal, ODN: Optical wiring network, ONU: Optical network unit, ONT: Optical network terminal. In the different environment, the comparison of ONT and ONU is different. In the FTTH, ONU refers to an optical network device connected to the branch fiber of the ODN. ONT refers to the optical network device connected to the end user (that is, our home). When the carrier fiber enters the home, there will be a fiber-optic modem. We usually say that the optical cat is connected to the branch fiber of the ODN and also connected to the end user. It can be called ONU or ONT. So, at this time, ONU=ONT. In the FTTB, this ONU box is placed at the entrance of our house, like the style of the main meter in each corridor. At this time, the small device connected to the ODN fiber can not be in the end user’s home. We can’t just equate the ONT with the ONU. FTTB’s ONU box, a fiber comes in, and branches out a number of network cables. The MDU Multiple Dwelling Unit multi-user unit in the FTTB is one of the ONUs. MDU can lead to multiple network cables. To describe simply: FTTB “fiber to the building”, the 16-port ONU is placed in the unit box in the corridor, there are 16 ONTs in the ONU, and each ONT output is a network cable (electric signal), which reaches each user terminal through the network cable in the corridor. FTTH “Fiber to the Home”, the 1 to 16 splitter is placed in the cell box in the corridor, and then through the fiber optic cable in the corridor to each user, each user is connected to an ONT. It is equivalent to dismantling the ONU, so that the terminal device is infinitely close to the user. The ONT can be understood as an ONU with only one port.

What is OTN, Is it Similar with ONT?

by http://www.fiber-mart.comIn the Access network, we have heard about ONT. Now, I tell you this OTN. Same letters, different order. Are OTN and ONT the same things? Obviously not! ONT belongs to the Access network. It’s the Optical network terminal, a product in the xPON network access solution. However, OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. Maybe you have heard about some companies produce transmission network products, such as Huawei OptiXtrans DC908 OTN, ZTE ZXONE 9700 OTN, and so on. In this article, I will introduce the overview of OTN. Enjoy it! What is OTN? OTN is based on WDM technology. An optical transport network (OTN), a type of network, refers to a transport network that implements transmission, multiplexing, routing, and monitoring of service signals in the optical domain, and guarantees performance indicators and survivability. What is the benefit of OTN? The main advantage of OTN is complete backward compatibility. It can be built on the existing SONET/SDH management functions, which not only provides complete transparency of existing communication protocols, but also provides end-to-end connection and networking capabilities for WDM. It provides ROADM with optical layer interconnection specifications and supplements sub-wavelength convergence and grooming capabilities. It mainly establishes end-to-end link and networking capabilities on the basis of SDH, and provides a model for the optical layer. The OTN concept covers both optical and electrical layers. Its technology inherits the dual advantages of SDH and WDM. The key technical characteristics are as follows: Various customer signal packaging and transparent transmissionThe OTN frame structure based on ITU-TG.709 can support the mapping and transparent transmission of various customer signals, such as SDH, ATM, and Ethernet. Standard encapsulation and transparent transmission can be realized for SDH and ATM, but the support for Ethernet at different rates is different. ITU-TG.sup43 provides supplementary suggestions for 10GE services to achieve different degrees of transparent transmission, and for GE, 40GE, 100GE Ethernet, private network services Fibre Channel (FC) and access network services Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON ) Etc., its standardized mapping to OTN frames is currently under discussion. Bandwidth reuse, interleaving and configuration of large particlesThe electrical layer bandwidth particles defined by OTN are optical path data units (O-DUk, k=0,1,2,3), namely ODUO (GE, 1000M/S), ODU1 (2.5Gb/s), ODU2 (10Gb/s ) And ODU3 (40Gb/s), the bandwidth particles of the optical layer are wavelengths. Compared with the SDH VC-12/VC-4 scheduling particles, the OTN multiplexing, crossover and configuration particles are significantly larger, which can significantly improve the high Adaptability and transmission efficiency of bandwidth data client services. Powerful expenses and maintenance management capabilitiesOTN provides similar overhead management capabilities as SDH. The OTN frame structure of the OTN optical path (OCh) layer greatly enhances the digital monitoring capabilities of this layer. In addition, OTN also provides a 6-layer nested serial connection monitoring (TCM) function, which makes it possible for OTN networking to adopt end-to-end and multiple segment simultaneous performance monitoring. Provides suitable management methods for cross-operator transmission. Enhanced networking and protection capabilitiesThrough the introduction of OTN frame structure, ODUk crossover and multi-dimensional reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM), the networking capability of the optical transmission network has been greatly enhanced, and the scheduling bandwidth and WDM based on SDHVC-12/VC-4 have been changed. Point-to-point provides the status of large-capacity transmission bandwidth. The use of forward error correction (FEC) technology significantly increases the transmission distance of the optical layer. In addition, OTN will provide more flexible service protection functions based on electrical and optical layers, such as ODUk layer-based photonic network connection protection (SNCP) and shared ring network protection, optical layer-based optical channel or multiplex section protection, etc. However, the shared ring network technology has not been standardized. OTN vs. SDH, WDM Based on WDM technology, OTN introduces the powerful operation, maintenance, management and assignment (OAM) capabilities of SDH on the basis of super large transmission capacity. At the same time OTN makes up for the lack of SDH functions and maintenance management overhead when facing the transport layer. It uses the embedded standard FEC, rich maintenance and management overhead, suitable for large particle business access FEC error correction coding, improves the error performance, and increases the span of optical transmission. What is the Application of OTN? The intelligent optical network based on OTN will provide a very ideal solution for the transmission of large-particle broadband services. The transmission network is mainly composed of an inter-provincial trunk transmission network, an intra-provincial trunk transmission network, and a metropolitan (local) transmission network, and the metropolitan (local) transmission network can be further divided into a core layer, a convergence layer, and an access layer. Compared with SDH, the biggest advantage of OTN technology is to provide large-grain bandwidth scheduling and transmission. Therefore, whether to use OTN technology at different network levels depends on the size of the main scheduling service bandwidth particles. According to the current status of the network, the main particles of the core layer scheduling of the inter-provincial trunk transmission network, the intra-provincial trunk transmission network and the metropolitan (local) transmission network are generally Gb/s and above. Therefore, these layers can be used to take advantage of advantages and scalability. For the convergence and access level of the metropolitan (local) transmission network, when the main scheduling particles reach the Gb/s level, OTN technology can also be used for priority construction. Summary OTN is a Transport network solution, which is very different with ONT, an Access network product. Do you have other questions about OTN? Welcome to leave your comments here.

Optical Transmission vs. Microwave Transmission

by http://www.fiber-mart.comMicrowave communication refers to the method of using microwave (Microwave) as a carrier to carry information and carry out relay communication. Nowadays, although wired transmission networks dominated by optical fiber communication dominate, we still cannot do without microwave communication in some special application scenarios. For example, in remote areas, it is too difficult or costly to deploy cables, or when natural disasters occur, optical fiber transmission is damaged. Compared with optical fiber communication, microwave still has many irreplaceable advantages. For example, the cost is low, and the ability to resist disasters is strong. What are the specific differences between them? First of all, when we talk about microwaves, we may think of microwave ovens in our minds. Microwave ovens are actually an application that makes good use of microwave principles, but the most important thing for microwaves is the communication in our lives. The signals of our mobile phones can be transmitted in Internet browsing is the way microwave is applied in our lives. Of course, the same can be done as an optical fiber. We often hear that the home needs to install an optical fiber with a faster network speed. The Wi-Fi router is a form of optical fiber communication. Then these two are also the methods of transmitting the traffic in our lives, but they are very different in principle. Microwave is wireless, it transmits information through wavelength reflection, and optical fiber is a kind of wired data transmission through wire, and this principle also leads to some of their characteristics. The wavelength range of the microwave causes its poor penetration and is susceptible to interference of the same frequency, which also makes it less stable than that. In this way, it seems that microwave is more inferior, and in today’s optical fiber era, optical fiber coverage is larger, and it is also the main transmission method of our base station. Microwave replacement of optical fiber is not ideal. The reason why some people think that the arrival of 5G to make microwave transmission faster will affect the results of both parties, but also that too many factors have not been considered. The transmission speed of optical fiber is incomparable to microwave, and its stability is higher and it will not be affected and interfered as easily as microwave. However, compared with optical fiber communication microwave, it also has advantages that others cannot replace. Its cost is low, and its construction will be more flexible and faster. This advantage allows microwave to be popularized in many places and in an environment where optical fiber cannot be constructed. Can be replaced by microwave. In some places, it is difficult to build and deploy optical fibers and the cost is very high. Composition of optical transmission equipment: Optical transmission equipment includes MSTP, WDM, OTN, PTN and optical fiber and other accessories. MSTP (Multi-Service Transfer Platform) (SDH-based multi-service transfer platform) refers to the simultaneous realization of the access, processing and transmission of services such as TDM, ATM, and Ethernet based on the SDH platform. Dao provides multiple services for unified network management. Business node. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) combines two or more optical carrier signals of different wavelengths (carrying various information) at the transmitting end through a multiplexer (also called a multiplexer), and the technology of transmission in the same optical fiber coupled to the optical line. This type of equipment uses this technology. OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. This type of equipment uses this technology. Optical Transmission vs. Microwave TransmissionPosted on September 4, 2020 by RS-Tech | 0 Comments18th Anniversary SaleIn our daily life, we can see base stations everywhere. It looks like this: station However, if you observe carefully, you will find that on the roof of some buildings, in addition to the base station, there will be some devices like “big drums”. microwave These “big drums” are what we usually call “microwave equipment”. More accurately, it is the “microwave communication antenna.” Microwave communication refers to the method of using microwave (Microwave) as a carrier to carry information and carry out relay communication. Nowadays, although wired transmission networks dominated by optical fiber communication dominate, we still cannot do without microwave communication in some special application scenarios. For example, in remote areas, it is too difficult or costly to deploy cables, or when natural disasters occur, optical fiber transmission is damaged. Compared with optical fiber communication, microwave still has many irreplaceable advantages. For example, the cost is low, and the ability to resist disasters is strong. What are the specific differences between them? First of all, when we talk about microwaves, we may think of microwave ovens in our minds. Microwave ovens are actually an application that makes good use of microwave principles, but the most important thing for microwaves is the communication in our lives. The signals of our mobile phones can be transmitted in Internet browsing is the way microwave is applied in our lives. Of course, the same can be done as an optical fiber. We often hear that the home needs to install an optical fiber with a faster network speed. The Wi-Fi router is a form of optical fiber communication. Then these two are also the methods of transmitting the traffic in our lives, but they are very different in principle. Microwave is wireless, it transmits information through wavelength reflection, and optical fiber is a kind of wired data transmission through wire, and this principle also leads to some of their characteristics. The wavelength range of the microwave causes its poor penetration and is susceptible to interference of the same frequency, which also makes it less stable than that. In this way, it seems that microwave is more inferior, and in today’s optical fiber era, optical fiber coverage is larger, and it is also the main transmission method of our base station. Microwave replacement of optical fiber is not ideal. The reason why some people think that the arrival of 5G to make microwave transmission faster will affect the results of both parties, but also that too many factors have not been considered. microwave-1 The transmission speed of optical fiber is incomparable to microwave, and its stability is higher and it will not be affected and interfered as easily as microwave. However, compared with optical fiber communication microwave, it also has advantages that others cannot replace. Its cost is low, and its construction will be more flexible and faster. This advantage allows microwave to be popularized in many places and in an environment where optical fiber cannot be constructed. Can be replaced by microwave. In some places, it is difficult to build and deploy optical fibers and the cost is very high. Type Optical transmission Microwave transmissionTransmission medium Optical Fiber Free spaceResistance to natural disasters Weak StrongFlexibility Low HighCost of Construction High LowPeriod of Construction Long ShortTransmission rate High LowComposition of optical transmission equipment: Optical transmission equipment includes MSTP, WDM, OTN, PTN and optical fiber and other accessories. MSTP (Multi-Service Transfer Platform) (SDH-based multi-service transfer platform) refers to the simultaneous realization of the access, processing and transmission of services such as TDM, ATM, and Ethernet based on the SDH platform. Dao provides multiple services for unified network management. Business node. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) combines two or more optical carrier signals of different wavelengths (carrying various information) at the transmitting end through a multiplexer (also called a multiplexer), and the technology of transmission in the same optical fiber coupled to the optical line. This type of equipment uses this technology. OTN is the Optical Transport Network, a next generation backbone transport network with WDM technology and Optical layer network. This type of equipment uses this technology. huawei-optix-osn-7500 PTN (Packet Transport Network, Packet Transport Network) refers to such an optical transport network architecture and specific technology: a layer is set up between the IP service and the underlying optical transmission medium, and it aims at the burstiness and statistical replication of packet service traffic. Designed with transmission requirements, with packet services as the core and support for multi-service provision, with lower total cost of use (TCO), while adhering to the traditional advantages of optical transmission, including high availability and reliability, efficient bandwidth management mechanisms and Traffic engineering, convenient OAM and network management, scalability, high security, etc. This type of equipment uses this technology. Composition of microwave equipment: Generally speaking, microwave equipment is mainly composed of IDU, ODU, intermediate frequency cable, antenna and other parts. IDU is an indoor unit, Indoor Unit. ODU is an outdoor unit, Outdoor Unit. Intermediate frequency means that the transmitter transforms the signal carrier into the transmitting frequency, or transforms the receiving frequency into an intermediate frequency of the baseband, which is generally determined by the system architecture. The radio frequency is the frequency of the electromagnetic wave signal transmitted by the antenna and propagated in the air. Needless to say, the antenna converts radio frequency signals into electromagnetic waves and radiates into the air. Or receive electromagnetic waves, convert them into radio frequency signals, and send them to ODU. In addition to the “big drum” that everyone sees, there are also parabolic antennas and Cassegrain antennas. This type of antenna is used in satellite communications. It can be said that microwaves and optical fibers meet their different needs. It is more suitable to construct optical fibers in densely populated areas and urban environments with high-rise buildings, while it is more suitable to construct microwaves in a wide and flat environment without the obstacles of some buildings. They are not the competitors we think, but they are making up for each other.

Saving A Fiber Optic Cable Before It Breaks

by http://www.fiber-mart.comThere are myriad of stories where fiber optic cables are broken and resources are marshalled to find the location of the break and fix the fiber.  In the United States over a 9 month period monitoring a Google Alerts feed there were over 120 reported fiber optic cable breaks. Since most breaks never get reported it can be assumed that this is only a small fraction. I’ve written about the importance of documenting the fiber optic network in order to make it faster to repair broken fibers (Where’s The Fault: My Introduction to “WTF”).  But, what if a prospective break could be found before a fracture actually occurred?  If a fiber in distress can be discovered before damage is done resources and reputation can be saved.  That was the case with a Singapore based communication service provider. This service provider knows the importance of monitoring the network, especially with all of the construction in Singapore and surrounding areas where their network exists.  They had installed the Fiber Guardian from Exfo (www.exfo.com) to help ensure the security of their network.  The Fiber Guardian inserts light into the fiber to actively monitor it using OTDR technology.  The results of the active monitoring are compared to a baseline OTDR trace. If there are differences between what is found and what is expected the Fiber Guardian will go into alarm and send email and text messages to specified service technicians.  What helps make the Fiber Guardian so valuable is that it is linked to a street map with the monitored fiber optic cables superimposed. This isn’t a typical map. It is housed within a special software application called Fiber Test InSight (www.ospinsight.com) that is designed to use the length to the fault contained within the Fiber Guardian alarm and find the location on a map.  Thus, not only are technicians notified that there is a problem, they are directed to where the problem is.  Late last year technicians for this Singapore based service provider received email and SMS indicating there was degradation in their network.  They quickly went to the location they were directed to by Fiber Test Insight and Fiber Guardian. Once there, they found a massive construction project.  They noticed that the conduit their cables were in had a sharp bend that was compromising their fiber optic cable. They showed this to the on-site project manager who subsequently was able to secure the damaged pipe.  Finding this cable probably prevented a major outage and saved a tremendous amount of resources in time and repair. Mark this up to another example of the importance of proactively preparing for the inevitable by managing the fiber optic network.  Interesting side note, this one incident justified the cost for their fiber monitoring solution. 

What You Need to Know Before Deploying Your FTTH Network

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

So you’ve chosen a design for your FTTH network. And you’ve evaluated it to ensure that it’s a good investment for you and your potential subscribers.

Now, it’s time to prep for deployment.

Here are a few other factors to consider before you begin rolling out cable:


  • The skill of your labor force
  • Existing fiber infrastructure in your market
  • Your other fiber developments
  • Future integrations with broader networks
  • Government regulations

Is your existing labor force skilled enough to build your proposed network?

When it comes to network deployment, you can either choose to manage the project in-house or go with a third-party developer. You typically pay a premium to go the outsourcing route. However, if your labor force isn’t well equipped to deploy the specific architecture you need, you risk investing significant time and capital on a network that won’t perform well.

Provide high-quality training and education for your critical personnel or bring in a fiber developer who specializes in building your particular type of architecture.

What fiber infrastructure already exists in the market?

Before spending any capital on network components, cables, and installation fees, see if there is any existing infrastructure in place that you can leverage. This could help you save labor and material costs, in addition to speeding up your time to deployment.

You must ensure that your hardware can integrate seamlessly with what already exists if you need to fill in gaps within the existing infrastructure. Otherwise, you could end up spending more to fix faulty connections and troubleshoot other issues.

What additional FTTH network developments do you have in process?

If you are planning to deploy several FTTH networks simultaneously, think about how you can leverage economies of scale across your different projects. Purchase essential fiber network components and cables in bulk and follow the same design standards from project-to-project.

This way, it’s much easier to manage multiple builds at once while also reducing your total implementation costs. If possible, streamline your training efforts and educate network technicians in the same way so that all developments follow the same design processes.

Can your network easily be integrated into a broader network?

We also touch on this particular point in our design evaluation article as it is a very important consideration for fiber operators. In the future, another FTTH network may want to purchase and absorb your existing network. Your network is more valuable if it can be easily integrated into someone else’s architecture.

You may also reach a point where you want to purchase someone else’s fiber network. Perform a thorough evaluation of what it would really cost to combine your network with someone else’s infrastructure. As FTTH deployments continue to increase nationwide and competition grows in individual markets, this is a critical consideration to keep in the back of your mind.

What are the government regulations around FTTH?

Before deploying your FTTH network, you also need to make sure you understand every government regulation in the local market that could impact your project. You should have a thorough understanding of the documents, permits, and easements you need before you break any ground.

Rules can differ drastically across municipalities and countries. For example, in some regions, you may need a “Certificate of Public Convenience.” Other areas may enforce “Dig Once” policies, preventing network developers from uprooting the same ground for incremental installations. “Pole Attachment Agreements” may be required for any FTTH projects involving aerial fiber use.

On top of documentation requirements, your field techs and designers should also understand all local fiber optic standards and codes. These details can impact which materials you are able to use. Stateside, cabling standards are set by Telcordia or TIA. Internationally, standards may be instituted by ITU or ISO/IEC depending on where you are.

You may also need sign-offs from local professional engineers, architects, and organizations for certain aspects of your development. Fiber installations in public areas may require supervision from local authorities in the form of traffic management or protection.

Turning Over Every Stone

FTTH network development is very exciting. However, you need to make sure you have considered every deployment variable, from existing infrastructure to local government regulations, before getting started. Turn over every stone now and mitigate future risk that could throw off your project.

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Municipal Fiber Networks?

by http://www.fiber-mart.comMunicipal fiber networks have both advantages and disadvantages. On one hand, municipal networks are an effective solution for delivering high-speed public broadband services in areas with limited ISP coverage. On the other hand, building and managing a fiber network independently can be very challenging. As an operator, you need a balanced perspective on municipal networks so that you can best serve your government clients. The Advantages of Municipal Fiber NetworksOne of the main reasons why communities invest in municipal networks is that they “level the playing field” for subscribers. Through municipal networks, communities create competitive marketplaces in which consumers have a choice over who provides their broadband services. With the right network design, local governments can encourage participation from multiple service providers, thereby incentivizing them to innovate and price fairly. As a result, residents often have access to high-speed internet at a lower cost than they would otherwise. In many communities with publicly available internet, the “digital divide” is less prominent as households have equitable access to quality broadband. Municipal networks also help promote community-wide economic development. With widespread access to fast internet, businesses are able to participate in the global economy and leverage next-generation technologies much more easily. Another major benefit of municipal networks is that local governments can closely monitor the services provided by participating ISPs. Consequently, these ISPs can be held accountable to certain performance standards and ensure that community members get the services they deserve. The Disadvantages of Municipal Fiber NetworksOn the downside, municipal networks can be very complex to manage. In smaller communities, it can be hard to find personnel with expertise in taking big fiber development projects from start to finish. This is especially true for municipal networks that lease capacity to several ISPs simultaneously. The more stakeholders there are, the more challenging the network is to maintain for all who are involved. In addition, the upfront and ongoing costs of deploying a municipal network can be significant. Taxpayer dollars are at stake, which can be scary in communities with limited experience running profitable fiber networks. Local governments need to be prepared for extended periods of time with little cash flow and carefully project their financials over the long term. Without the right incentives in place, internet service providers may also be hesitant to participate in open access networks. If population density is too low, competition is too intense, or wholesale pricing for cable capacity is too high, ISPs won’t see the value in providing services over municipal networks. Close collaboration is necessary to ensure that everyone can benefit from a municipal network launch. Because local governments oversee municipal networks, some residents and businesses carry privacy concerns. There is a degree of monitoring that must exist in order for communities to evaluate whether or not their networks are fulfilling their original purposes. This public oversight may be too much of a deterrent in certain parts of the country.