Fiber Optic Transceivers for 5G Networking Equipment

5G rollouts are on the horizon, with major telecom companies set to rollout limited network access in the US and Europe. Most folks pay attention to the wireless requirements in these networks, but local antennas will still need to be connected to the telephone network and the Internet with high bandwidth optical fibers or wireless backhaul connections.
All this requires fiber optic transceivers to support fiber networking equipment. Choosing the right transceiver for fiber networks depends on multiple factors, although in 5G the principal factors to consider are bandwidth, data rate, conversion loss, and fiber type. Before you can choose the correct fiber transceiver, the first step is to determine what type of fiber the network is using, or what type of fiber cable the application will require to achieve optimal speed and bandwidth.
Which Type of Fiber are You Using?
There are two main types of fiber cable, each of which is appropriate for different applications and will require different transceivers:
Multimode Fiber (MMF): this type of fiber can be used to transmit multiple channels simultaneously. Greater mode density leads to greater modal dispersion that accumulates over the distance of the fiber, thus these fibers are best used for short-run links, such as in MAN and LAN networks.
Single-mode Fiber (SMF): This fiber is designed for longer distances and will provide faster data transmission rates in a single channel with the correct transceivers. These fibers are often bundled in a single cable for massive data transmission over long distances.
Within SMF and MMF classes of fiber, there are different fiber types that provide different data rates and are rated for use over different distances under TIA/EIA standards for fiber optics. Your optical power budget will also determine the limit transceiver you can use for a given link length, and your output on the transmitting side may need to increase the output from your transmitting transceiver to compensate losses in a link.
Clearly, there are several important systems design points to consider, but the first important points to consider in a real network are link length and required data rate. Newer portions of fiber to support upcoming 5G rollouts require multi-Gbps data transmission over long distances to support connections between base stations and cell towers, and to provide fiber-to-the-home and fiber-to-the-premises.
Some municipalities are already installing dark fiber that is capable of up to 40 or 100 Gbps, and networking equipment to support these dark fiber networks will need to include transceivers to support these data rates. Ideal link lengths can range anywhere from hundreds of meters (MMF will be used here) up to be dozens of kilometers (SMF will be used here) in order to support existing cellular infrastructure. If you’re working with SMF fiber over long distances, expect to drop bundles of fiber and deploy scalable networking equipment that includes swappable transceivers with standard form factors. QSFP+ or CFP will be the dominant form factors, especially CFP as it already supports 40 and 100 Gbps systems.
Finisar FTL4C1QM1C
The Finisar FTL4C1QM1C fiber optic transceiver has QSFP+ form factor that supports 39.8 to 44.6 Gbps data rates with low power dissipation (<3.5 W). This transceiver is hot-swappable and supports up to 10 km links over SMF. This transceiver also provides a number of built-in digital diagnostic functions, including transmit and receiver power monitoring.
Finisar FTLC9558REPM
The Finisar FTLC9558REPM fiber optic transceiver is one option for 100 m links over at 103.1 Gbps over MMF. Just like the previous product, this transceiver module is hot-swappable and runs at low power (<2.5 W). Data is transferred in 4 lanes at 25 Gbps with a VCSEL-based transmitter at 850 nm, while the receive side operates with a 4x25G electrical interface over I2C:
They are compliant with the QSFP28 MSA and IEEE 802.3bm 100GBASE-SR4 and CAUI-4. Digital diagnostics functions are available via the I2C interface, as specified by the QSFP28 MSA and Finisar Application Note AN-2141. The optical transceiver is compliant per the RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU. See Finisar Application Note AN-2038 for more details.
Avago AFBR-79EQDZ
The Avago AFBR-79EQDZ 40 Gbps transceiver can be used in up to 100 m links with OM3 MMF, or in 150 m links using OM4 MMF (both fiber types operate at 850 nm). Note that each lane operates at 10.3125 Gbps. It also supports 10GBase-SR modules in compliance with the IEEE 802.3ae standard, as long as the 10G receiver can sustain 2.4 dBm maximum input optical power. The optical interface on the transmit and receive sides both use standard optics for high speed fiber:
The optical transmitter portion…incorporates a 4-channel VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array, a 4-channel input buffer and laser driver, diagnostic monitors, control and bias blocks. The optical receiver portion…incorporates a 4-channel PIN photodiode array, a 4-channel TIA array, a 4 channel output buffer, diagnostic monitors, and control and bias blocks.
Note that, in some cases, you can get away with using an SMF with a fiber optic transceiver designed for MMF as the core in an SMF fiber is about 20% the value required in the receiver. This provides easy coupling and the fiber will be insensitive to alignment, but this is not recommended and many not work over longer distances. In the ideal case, you should choose a transceiver that will support the data rates and fiber type you are using in your particular application.
Telecommunications systems aren’t the only application where fiber will see greater use. The insensitivity of fiber to EMI and ESD, as well as the low weight of fiber compared to copper, makes fiber ideal for use in aerospace applications and other environments where noise is a problem. If you’re looking for a fiber transceiver for your next telecommunications system or other specialized application, you can find the components you need on fiber-mart.com.

How do Fiber optic transceivers work?

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Fiber optic transceivers include both a transmitter and a receiver in the same component. These are arranged in parallel so that they can operate independently of each other. Both the receiver and the transmitter have their own circuitry so that they can handle transmissions in both directions.
Fiber optic transceivers can interface with two types of cables, single mode and multimode. Single mode is an optical fiber that will allow only one mode to propagate. The fiber has a very small core diameter of approximately 8 µm. It permits signal transmission at extremely high bandwidth and allows very long transmission distances. Multimode describes a fiber optic cable, which supports the propagation of multiple modes.
Multimode fiber may have a typical core diameter of 50 to 100 µm with a refractive index that is graded or stepped. It allows the use of inexpensive LED light sources and connector alignment and coupling is less critical than single mode fiber.
Distances of transmission and transmission bandwidth are less than with single mode fiber due to dispersion. Some fiber optic transceivers can be used for both single mode and multimode cables. Common connector types for fiber optic transceivers include Biconic, D4, ESCON, FC, FDDI, LC, Loopback, MTP, MT-RJ, MU, SC, SMA, and ST. General performance specifications to consider include wavelength, operating voltage, data rate, and bandwidth.
Important receiver performance parameters to consider when searching for fiber optic transceivers include sensitivity, responsivity, and receiver rise time. The sensitivity specifies the weakest optical signal that can be received. The minimum signal that can be received depends on the noise floor of the transceiver front end. The measure of responsivity is the ratio of radiant energy expressed in watts (W) incident on the device, to the resulting photocurrent expressed in amperes (A). It is represented as an absolute sensitivity expressed by A/W.
In the approximation of a step function, the receiver rise time is the time required for a signal to change from a specified 10% to 90% of full power. Rise time is a way of expressing the speed of the receiver. Important transmitter performance specifications to consider include light source, spectral width, and maximum optical output power and transmitter rise time.
The light source can be LED or laser diode. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have relatively large emitting areas and as a result are not as good light sources as Laser diodes. However, they are widely used for short to moderate transmission distances because they are much more economical. Laser Diodes (LDs) can couple many times more power to optical fiber than LEDs.
They are primarily used for applications that require the transmission of signals over long distances. In the approximation of a step function, the transmitter rise time is the time required for a signal to change from a specified 10% to 90% of full power. Rise time is a way of expressing the speed of the transmitter.
Common features for fiber optic transceivers include clock recovery, pigtail, stand alone, and signal input and output choices. An important environmental parameter to consider is the operating temperature.
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Can I Connect Fiber Optic Transceivers of Different Brand?

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Data centers generally accommodates hundreds or even thousands of network switches, it happens when you have to connect switches from different vendors (i.e. switch X from Cisco and switch Y from HP). As the switches only fit their own brand-based fiber optic transceiver, the main issues thus falls into this: is it possible to contact two different vendor’s fiber optic transceiver module and form a viable link? The answer is yes – but you still have to take some critical aspects into account.
Case Study: Standard of Fiber Optic Transceiver is the Key
Sometimes people have to mix switches and fiber optic transceivers, mainly because the following reasons:
They already have brand X and they need more switches and they shop on price. Hence different brands
They need to replace switches but do not have money for all and they buy brand X and plan on going to brand X completely but it takes time to get there.
There exist quite a lot standards and protocols concerning fiber optic transceiver. Although many installers are very familiar with linking different vendor’s switch, the others are still worried that the incompatibilities of two transceivers may impede the link performance. They may come across the questions like “Can I order a 1000BASE-LX transceiver from any source and it will be compatible with all others 1000BASE-LX?” or “Would a link with a Juniper 1000Base-LX and a Cisco 1000BASE-LX transceiver work?”
Ideally it should work. 1000BASE-LX is a standard the same way 1000BASE-T is, except that it uses fiber as the transmission medium. You’ve already known that any copper interfaces with 1000BASE-T is interoperable since they are defined by the same 1000BASE-T standards. So you can expect the same with fiber 1000BASE-LX interfaces –  which are all defined by 1000BASE-LX. While this is true on the fiber side of the system, and should be true on the thing with the fiber optic transceiver socket. In fact, you can rest assure as SFP is multi-vendor standard that specified by a multi-source agreement (MSA). And it is a popular industry format jointly developed by many network component vendors.
Further Consideration of Fiber Optic Transceivers: Protocol, Transmission Wavelength and Cable Type
Connecting SFP optical transceivers from two different vendors still have some other restriction, since SFP transceivers differs from one another in protocol, interface type and transmission distance.
Ethernet Protocol: You have to pay attention that you use fiber optical transceiver of the same protocol at each end, for example: both sides with SX, LX or whatever is currently in use. Otherwise, you have to undertake the risk of link failure.
Cable Type: The fiber optic transceivers on each end must use the same fiber type. An SFP made for multimode fiber isn’t going to work well, if it does at all, with single-mode fiber. Same applies with other multimode fiber types: although mixing various 50 um fibers (OM2 and OM4) may work OK depending on data rate and distance. As long as each end is the same fiber type, you can mix vendors and even connector types, such as SC on one end and LC on the other end.
Wavelength: It is vital the wavelength of the fiber optic transceivers (850nm, 1310nm) matches on each end, as a 1310nm transceiver will NOT talk to a 850 nm transceiver. MMF has a lot of loss, and the wrong wavelength may cause loss and degradation on the longer runs. As for SMF, you need to be even more careful about wavelengths though, especially for long distance. So, if you are on the working range, all the fiber optic transceiver will work normally.
wavelength for optical transceiver
Conclusion
It is hence safe to say that when connecting two fiber optic transceivers from different fiber optic transceiver manufacturers, you can expect your fiber patch cable to lead a consistent link as long as you use modules of the same Ethernet protocol, cable type and working wavelength. fiber-mart provides fully compatible optical transceivers with affordable price and decent performance. For more information, please visit http://www.fiber-mart.com.

Can I Connect Fiber Optic Transceivers of Different Brand?

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Data centers generally accommodates hundreds or even thousands of network switches, it happens when you have to connect switches from different vendors (i.e. switch X from Cisco and switch Y from HP). As the switches only fit their own brand-based fiber optic transceiver, the main issues thus falls into this: is it possible to contact two different vendor’s fiber optic transceiver module and form a viable link? The answer is yes – but you still have to take some critical aspects into account.
connect optical transceivers from different brand
Case Study: Standard of Fiber Optic Transceiver is the Key
Sometimes people have to mix switches and fiber optic transceivers, mainly because the following reasons:
They already have brand X and they need more switches and they shop on price. Hence different brands
They need to replace switches but do not have money for all and they buy brand X and plan on going to brand X completely but it takes time to get there.
There exist quite a lot standards and protocols concerning fiber optic transceiver. Although many installers are very familiar with linking different vendor’s switch, the others are still worried that the incompatibilities of two transceivers may impede the link performance. They may come across the questions like “Can I order a 1000BASE-LX transceiver from any source and it will be compatible with all others 1000BASE-LX?” or “Would a link with a Juniper 1000Base-LX and a Cisco 1000BASE-LX transceiver work?”
fiber optic transceiver
Ideally it should work. 1000BASE-LX is a standard the same way 1000BASE-T is, except that it uses fiber as the transmission medium. You’ve already known that any copper interfaces with 1000BASE-T is interoperable since they are defined by the same 1000BASE-T standards. So you can expect the same with fiber 1000BASE-LX interfaces –  which are all defined by 1000BASE-LX. While this is true on the fiber side of the system, and should be true on the thing with the fiber optic transceiver socket. In fact, you can rest assure as SFP is multi-vendor standard that specified by a multi-source agreement (MSA). And it is a popular industry format jointly developed by many network component vendors.
Further Consideration of Fiber Optic Transceivers: Protocol, Transmission Wavelength and Cable Type
Connecting SFP optical transceivers from two different vendors still have some other restriction, since SFP transceivers differs from one another in protocol, interface type and transmission distance.
Ethernet Protocol: You have to pay attention that you use fiber optical transceiver of the same protocol at each end, for example: both sides with SX, LX or whatever is currently in use. Otherwise, you have to undertake the risk of link failure.
Cable Type: The fiber optic transceivers on each end must use the same fiber type. An SFP made for multimode fiber isn’t going to work well, if it does at all, with single-mode fiber. Same applies with other multimode fiber types: although mixing various 50 um fibers (OM2 and OM4) may work OK depending on data rate and distance. As long as each end is the same fiber type, you can mix vendors and even connector types, such as SC on one end and LC on the other end.
Wavelength: It is vital the wavelength of the fiber optic transceivers (850nm, 1310nm) matches on each end, as a 1310nm transceiver will NOT talk to a 850 nm transceiver. MMF has a lot of loss, and the wrong wavelength may cause loss and degradation on the longer runs. As for SMF, you need to be even more careful about wavelengths though, especially for long distance. So, if you are on the working range, all the fiber optic transceiver will work normally.
wavelength for optical transceiver
Conclusion
It is hence safe to say that when connecting two fiber optic transceivers from different fiber optic transceiver manufacturers, you can expect your fiber patch cable to lead a consistent link as long as you use modules of the same Ethernet protocol, cable type and working wavelength. fiber-mart provides fully compatible optical transceivers with affordable price and decent performance. For more information, please visit http://www.fiber-mart.com.

Why on earth do we need to choose active optical cable(AOC)?

AOCs bond the fiber connection inside the transceiver end, creating a complete cable assembly much like a DAC cable, only with a 3-200-meter reach capability.

What is an AOC? 

Here is the brief definition of AOC:

Optical transceivers convert electrical data signals into blinking laser light which is then transmitted over an optical fiber. Optical transceivers have an optical connector to disconnect the fiber from the transceiver. AOCs bond the fiber connection inside the transceiver end, creating a complete cable assembly much like a DAC cable, only with a 3-200-meter reach capability. AOCs main benefit is the very long reach of optical technology, while acting like a simple, “plug & play” copper cable.Active Optical Cable assemblies have been designed to support multiple protocols. Most of them are compliant with SFP+ Ethernet and InfiniBand electrical. Here is what a typical 40 Gb/s QSFP+ (Quad Small Form-Factor Pluggable Plus) AOC supports.

aoc_副本.png

Mainly, active optical cable (AOC) assemblies were invented to replace copper technology in data centers and high performance computing (HPC) applications. As we know, copper passive twinax cable is heavy and bulky, making it difficult to physically manage the datacenter. And due to the nature of electrical signals, electromagnetic interference (EMI) limits copper’s performance and reliability. Though there are so many disadvantages of copper cable, at that time, it is the main stream while the idea of AOC cables almost seems too good to be true. However, the advantages of AOC cables make the predecessors look obsolete and unsophisticated, and changes the limitation of copper passive twinax cable as well as playing an important role in high speed data transmission. Nowadays, a variety of active optical cable have been launched in the market, such as 10G SFP+ AOC40G QSFP+ to QSFP+ AOC,40G QSFP+ to 4 SFP+ breakout AOC ,40G QSFP+ to 8xLC breakout AOCs.

What are AOC Features and Advantages?

Compared to less expensive DAC cables, AOC offer:

  • Longer reach capability than DAC 3-7 meter limits;
  • 3m – 100-meters multi-mode technology;
  • 100-200 meters with single-mode, Silicon Photonics;
  • Lower weight, thinner cable and bend radius enabling increased airflow cooling and easier system maintenance.

Compared to more expensive optical transceivers, AOC offer:

  • Dramatically lower priced solution than two optical transceivers and connectorized fiber based links;
  • Lower power consumption at 2.2 Watts versus up to 4.5 Watts for optical transceivers (4-channel);
  • Lower operational and maintenance cost.

 

Fiber-Mart supplies various kinds of high speed interconnect AOC cable assemblies including 10G SFP+ AOC, 40G QSFP+ AOC Cables,100G QSFP28 AOC, 120G CXP AOC Cables. For more information, you can visit web Fiber-MART.COM.if you have something interest, pls feel free to contact us:service@fiber-mart.com