by http://www.fiber-mart.comEveryone knows that approx.. an year ago we use copper cables while using the internet connection of any brand. The service providers come up with copper cable to install the internet connection and provide the required service to them. But at present time, fiber optic cable is in demand. The users are quite happy with its performance as it rarely gets out of connection. On the other hand, it also gives a good speed to the user in comparison to the copper cables. Let’s discuss some other best advantages of fiber optic cable over the copper cables. Greater BandwidthThe  copper cable has the capacity to handle greater bandwidth as originally it was designed for voice transmission and have a limited bandwidth. So, now it is used as a greater bandwidth device. It carries more data than copper cables at the same diameter. Within the fiber cable group, only single mode fiber can delivers up to twice the multimode fiber. So, users are fine with what they are availing. Faster Speeds The fiber cables carry light to transmit data. This enables the cable to carry diverse signals at speeds that are slower than the speed of light which is faster than cat5 and cat6 copper cables. Therefore the speed this cable is higher than the copper cable. Longer Distances When it comes to long distance, this cable never disappoints as cables generally works on the basis of wavelength, network, distance and it performs well in each of these areas. It carries signals much faster than the traditional foot limitations upto 328ft. It carries data upto 25 miles. Better Reliability Be it any weather, fiber cable is immune to temperature changes. Weather doesn’t hamper the connectivity of this cable as like other traditional cables. And it does not even carry electric current so user must be stressed free with electromagnetic interference (EMI) that can interrupt data transmission. Thinner and Sturdier In comparison to any other cable, this cable is thinner, sturdier and light in weight. It is less prone to damage and breakage. More Flexibility for the Future According to the demand and usage, the media converters enable the user to incorporate fiber into existing networks. The converters enhance the Ethernet connection over fiber optic by extending the UTP. Modern panels are designed to meet the current needs and provide the flexibility for future needs. The panels are comprises of variety of cassettes for different types of fiber patch cables. Low Cost If the user gets its ownership, then he or she will realize that in initial days the rate of fiber optic cable is a bit expensive, but its reliability, durability and speed makes it worth it. And after some days of use, it automatically becomes affordable as there are a number of packages are given to the user to choose the most affordable one.

Introduction to 40GBASE QSFP+ Optical Modules


40GBASE Optical modules are various of optical transceivers with 40Gbps transmission rate, in which the QSFP is the main form factor. And the 40G QSFP+ Modules are the most broadly applied optical transceivers. In this article 10Gtek will be introducing different network solutions of the most prevailing 40G QSFP+ transceivers to help you have easier understanding and better selection to the modules. Features and Benefits of 40G QSFP+ TransceiverHot-pluggable to 40G Ethernet QSFP+ portQSFP+ MSA compliant and interoperable with other IEEE-compliant 40G interfacesRoHS certified and verified superior performance, durability and reliabilityHigh-speed electrical interface based on IEEE 802.3ba compliant4 Parallel lanes design of SR4, ESR4, PSM LR4 and PSM IR44 CWDM lanes MUX design of LR4, IR4 and ER4Low power consumption less than 3.5W 40G QSFP+ SR4 and 40G QSFP+ ESR4 TransceiversThe signals’ delivery of 40G QSFP+ SR4 transceiver are transmitted thru four independent full-duplex channels. MPO/MTP Connector is a criterion applied to the Transceiver in 40G data transmission, and MMF(Multi Mode Fiber) is required to operate over within the transceiver. When it’s running over OM3 optical fiber jumper the transmission distance is 100m, while the reach can be 150m when it’s running over OM4 optical fiber jumper. 40G QSFP+ ESR4 is the same operating principle as 40G QSFP+ SR4 but with a enriched distance of transmission up to 300m over OM4 optical fiber jumper. It can be considered as a upgraded version of 40G QSFP+ SR4 transceiver. 40G QSFP+ BIDI TransceiverThe QSFP+ BIDI transceiver is developed to address the challenges of fiber infrastructure by providing the capability to transmit full-duplex 40G traffic over one duplex MMF cable with LC connectors(Figure 2). In other words, this transceiver supports 40G connection over one pair of MMF cables while allowing 40G to be deployed using the same infrastructure as 10G (10GBASE-SR) without the need to add any fibers. Comparison of 40G QSFP+ BIDI and 40G QSFP+ SR440GBASE-SR BIDI transceiver removes 40G cabling cost barriers in data center networks. It provides immense savings and simplicity compared to other 40G QSFP+(MMF) transceiver(QSFP+ SR4). Moreover, it allows organizations to migrate the existing 10G cabling infrastructure to 40G at no cost and to expand the infrastructure with low capital investment. 40G QSFP+ PSM IR4 and 40G QSFP+ PSM LR4 TransceiversQSFP+ PSM IR4/ LR4 is a highly integrated four-channel optical transceiver with the advantages of high density of port and lower cost. The optical port adopts a PSM(Parallel Single Mode) technology and a four-way parallel design MPO/ MTP interface which enable the transmission distance up to 1.4km of IR4 and 10km of LR4. It has been designed with form factor, optical/ electrical connection and digital diagnostic interface compliant with MSA(Multi Source Agreement), these features are quite feasible to meet the harshest external operating conditions including temperature, humidity and EMI interface. The transceiver can run thru the I2C two-wire serial interface which is available to send and receive more complex control signals, and to receive digital diagnostic information. By comparison to 40G QSFP+ SR4 they are both in the same way of working but QSFP+ PSM IR4/ LR4 is operating over SMF(Single Mode Fiber) that is the parallel optical signals are delivered via eight single mode fibers. 40G QSFP+ CWDM LX4/ LR4 Lite/ LR4/ ER4 TransceiverDistinguished from DWDM i.e. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex, CWDM known as Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplex is a innovative technology for transporting large amounts of data between sites. It increases bandwidth by allowing different data streams to be sent simultaneously over a single optical fiber network. In this way, WDM maximizes the utilization of fiber and helps to optimize network investments. QSFP+ LX4 is a optical module designed especially for operating over both SMF and MMF with transmission distance of up to 150m on OM4 MMF and 2km on SMF. The central wavelengths of the 4 CWDM channels are 1271nm, 1291nm, 1311nm and 1331nm as members of the CWDM wavelength grid defined in ITU-T G.694.2. There is a duplex LC connector for the optical interface and a 148-pin connector for the electrical interface. For applications over SMF, the transceiver is used as a QSFP+ LR4 Lite module and SMF cables are directly connected to the LC connectors of the module. QSFP+ LR4 Lite/ LR4/ ER4 Module supports the link length of up to 2km, 10km and 30km respectively by operating over a standard pair of G.652 SMF with duplex LC connector. Within the device the 40G Ethernet signals are transmitted over four wavelengths which are managed to multiplex and demultiplex. There are 4 data channels to transmit signals at the same time. At transmitting side the 4 channels of optical signals are combined together by multiplexer while at receiving end there is a breakdown processed into 4 channels of optical signals by demultiplexer. The module features high density, low cost, high speed, large capacity and low power consumption. CWDM vs PSM, What’s The Difference?From an optical transceiver module structure viewpoint, PSM seems more cost-effective because it uses a single uncooled CW (continuous-wave) laser which splits its output power into four integrated silicon modulators. Besides, its array-fiber coupling to an MTP connector is relatively simpler. However, from an infrastructure viewpoint, PSM would be more expensive when the link distance is long, mainly due to the fact that PSM uses 8 optical single-mode fibers while CWDM uses only 2 optical single-mode fibers. Comparable with Third-Party QSFP+All 10Gtek’s 40G QSFP+ Transceiver is friendly compatible with third-party QSFP+ device, such as Cisso, Extreme, Brocade, Juniper, HP, Dell, Arista, Huawei and other known brands. Our 40G QSFP+ transceiver will give you a excellent solution to establish network connection without expensive cost.

FAQs about 10GBASE-T (10Gb/s Copper Transceiver)

by http://www.fiber-mart.com1.How to connect 10 Gigabit Ethernet CNA/NIC Intel X550 with 10GbE switches?Answer: Intel X550 is a kind of 10GbE converged network adapter, with RJ-45 ports. But most of 10GbE switches are with SFP+ ports. Port RJ-45 and port SFP+ can’t be linked directly. That is, we need a port converter to convert SFP+ to RJ-45. 10G copper transceiver is that kind of “converter”. Deploying 10GBASE-T transceiver and CAT.6A cable, the interconnection of 10GbE NICs with RJ-45 port and 10GbE switches with SFP+ port can be realized. 2.What is the maximum transmission distance of 10Gb/s copper transceiver?A: 30 meters, by CAT.6A cable. 3.Is it possible to use CAT.5E cable to link with 10GBASE-T?A: No. The standard bandwidth of CAT.5E is 100MHz, and CAT.5E is designed to transmit signals below 90M. 10 Gigabit signal transmission requires a CAT.6A patch cable. 4.Is 10GBASE-T pluggable?A: Yes. Please note that frequent plugging and unplugging may affect the working life of the module, so frequent plugging is not recommended. 5.Can the 10GBASE-T be used at low temperatures?A: The 10GBASE-T is available in commercial and industrial versions. Standard products are suitable for operating temperature range of 0~70 °C. For a wider temperature range, it is recommended to purchase industrial modules. 6.What is the difference between a 10GBASE-T transceiver and a 10Gb/s media converter?A: Both can achieve mutual conversion between 10 Gigabit electrical signals and optical signals. There are 3 main differences: 1.Different form factor: 10GBASE-T is on SFP+ form factor, with a small size; while 10GbE media converter is bulky and requires an additional power supply.2. Different cost: compared to 10GbE media converter, 10GBASE-T is on a lower cost. 3.Different application prospects: 10GbE media converter is a transitional product. There was a market for it before the 10GBASE-T launched. When the 10GBASE-T transceiver can be delivered in batches, there was almost no market for the 10 Gigabit Ethernet media converter. 7.Can 10GBASE-T increase the network transmission rate?A: No. The 10GBASE-T is just a photoelectric conversion converter that does not process the signal and does not increase the signal transmission rate. 8.What should I pay attention to when purchasing 10GBASE-T?A:Multi-rate or single rate: There are 2 types of 10GBASE-T: one supports multi-rate (1~10Gb/s) and another supports single rate (10Gb/s) only.Range of working temperature: The 10GBASE-T transceivers are available in commercial and industrial versions, with commercial version ranging from 0 to 70 ° C and industrial version from -45 to 80 ° C.Different main chip: At present, the main suppliers of 10GBASE-T transceiver chips are Marvell and Broadcom. Marvell’s chip solution is lower in cost and is currently used more commonly. 9.What is the difference between a 10 gigabit electrical transceiver and a 10 gigabit optical transceiver?A: The 10G electrical transceiver is with the RJ45 interface and connected by a CAT.6A patch cable. The 10G optical transceiver generally adopts the LC fiber interface and uses fiber patch cable for connection. 10.What is a 10GBASE-T 10 Gigabit electrical module?A: 10GBASE-T, 10 Gigabit electrical module is a device used to implement 10G Ethernet transmission in a Category 6 (CAT.6A) or Category 7 (CAT.7) copper cabling system. Its interface is RJ-45, which supports both shielded twisted pair and unshielded twisted pair. Its maximum transmission distance is up to 30 meters. 11.Is the heat generated when the 10GBASE-T is working?A: The calorific value is very high. The designed power consumption of the 10GBASE-T is 1.5w. Its heat generation is very high, and the high temperature can be obviously felt during use. The switches with multiple SFP+ interfaces cannot be fully equipped with 10GBASE-T. As for the maximum number of 10GBASE-T that can be equipped with, it depends on the switch availability.

How Should You Plan For A Fiber Installation?


After a network is designed, installation teams are ready to move forward. Installing fiber networks can be overwhelming as there are many teams to coordinate and tasks to execute. It’s important to develop an organized installation process and ensure all those involved are clear on their responsibilities.
Master Task List
One of the best ways to stay on track during a fiber installation is to create a master task list of all activities that need to be completed. Every fiber development is unique, which is why the master task list will differ from project to project.
It’s important to recognize that not all tasks will be completed sequentially. Some can move forward in parallel while others must be done in a particular order.
Consult all parties involved in a development to ensure that every critical step is captured and recorded. Every task should be listed with clear descriptions, completion dates, and contact information for whoever is on point. Any component purchases should list vendors, prices, expected delivery dates, and delivery locations.
Project Manager
Every network development needs a project manager who is involved from start to finish. The project manager should be apprised on the overall goal of the development, the layout of the network, the technical requirements, and the key people or organizations involved. The project manager should also have a replacement who can step in should the need arise.
The project manager is responsible for ensuring the network installation is carried out successfully and safely. He or she can use the master task list and any other project management tools to keep teams organized and on track. Involving project managers as early as possible in the design process can be helpful for making sure they are fully equipped with all of the information and context they need to be successful.

Advantages and Disadvantages of OM5 Fiber in Data Center


Data centers are the main storage houses to store and distribute data on the internet.  With the growing demands like high bandwidth videos, it is hard to say how much data is being uploaded and downloaded every second on the internet. To cope up with the demand of great bandwidth and high- speed applications, data centers of modern times needs to be upgraded. One such up gradation is OM5 fiber cable also known as wideband multimode fiber(WBMMF). In this post we will see both sides of the same coin, means adoption of OM5 fiber in data centers is beneficial or not.
Revolution in Data Center Deployment
With the data centers shifting to support more digital strategies, we have to gear up to tackle new challenges, more users and an ever-evolving digital world. Data rates have grown from 10G, 40G and now beyond 100G in many data center networks. According to Cisco Forecast overview 94 percent of workloads and compute instances will be processed by data centers by 2021. This clearly shows higher bandwidth and greater access are major elements for a data center’s architecture.
What is OM5 Fiber and will it benefit a Data Center?
OM5 is a big innovation in fiber optics and is a new generation of multimode fiber. It is designed to complement Short Wave Division Multiplexing (SWDM) to reduce the parallel fiber count to allow continued use of just two fibers that transmit 40G and 100G. OM5 fiber jumper is defined as wideband multimode fiber (WBMMF) as per new standards in IEC and TIA. It can work over a wide range of wavelength which varies between 850 nm and 950 nm. Let’s have a look
Pros and Cons of OM5 in a Data Center
GBIC-SHOP summarizes the pros and cons of OM5 cable and it cannot be denied that OM5 is to meet the high bandwidth challenges.
Compatibility – OM5 cable has the same fiber size and shape as of its predecessors OM4 and OM5. Therefore one doesn’t have to root up the existing cabling setup and already existing ports can be used shifting it to a high-speed data center network. We can say OM5 is fully compatible with the existing cabling infrastructure of data centers.
Extendibility – OM5 fiber jumpers are considered as an advanced version because of their ability to combine 100G-SWDM4 and parallel transmission technology.  OM4 patch cord can support link length only up to 100m. OM5 can achieve 200/400G Ethernet applications by using this 8-core WBMMF standard patch cable.
Cost – SWDM technology has reduced the number of fiber, the overall cost of achieving high bandwidth with OM5 is considerably reduced. OM5 fiber is beneficial for data center deployments when it comes to cost parameter. In most of the data centers, short reach connection is common, so multimode fiber cable(MMF) is the most cost-effective.
As we know that OM5 fiber cable has been standardized last year, its price is higher than OM4. Moreover, its corresponding transceiver 100G-SWDM4 has limited production. However, OM5 will surely be popular in coming times and increase in demand will bring a reduction in price.

Passive and Active Direct Attach Cables – What is the Difference?


Introduction of Direct Attach Cables
Direct attach cables (DAC) are an alternative to the fiber optic transceivers, they eliminate the need of using the transceivers by permanently attaching both ends of the cable with transceivers that can be terminated in the SFP+ slot in the communication equipment such as switches, routers, storage and servers. Figure 1 shows a typical direct attach cable.
Direct attach cables are used for smaller distance links, normally direct attach cables are available in lengths of 1 meter, 3 meters, 5 meters, 7 meters, 10 meters and 15 meters. General uses of direct attach cables are connecting the equipment in the same rack, connecting the equipment installed in adjacent racks or connecting the equipment within a mid-sized datacenter. Direct attach cables use both copper and fiber cable assemblies. The decision to use copper or fiber cable is dependent on various factors such as electro-magnetic interference and space availability.
Types of Direct Attach Cables
There are two main types of direct attach cables:
Copper/Twinax Direct Attach Cable
Fiber Optic Direct Attach Cable
These are further classified as Passive Copper/Twinax Direct Attach Cable and Active Copper/Twinax Direct Attach Cable. Fiber optic direct attach cable is available as Active Fiber Optic Direct Attach Cable only. In the next section, we will compare the active and passive types of direct attach cables and look at their specific uses.
Passive Direct Attach Cables
Passive direct attach cables are copper cables with fixed transceivers at both ends, these cables terminate on the communication equipment and provide connectivity between devices. Passive direct attach cables are usually available in lengths of up to 5-7 meters. Passive direct attach cables are thicker and consume more space. They are difficult to manage if a large number of cables are terminating on a single equipment. Passive direct attach cables have length limitations because copper cable cannot be used for longer distance 10G connectivity.
Active Direct Attach Cables
Active direct attach cables can be constructed of either copper or fiber with transceivers fixed at both ends. Active direct attach cables are available in lengths of up to 15 meters. Active direct attach cables have lesser thickness than passive direct attach cables primarily due to lesser thickness of the fiber optic as compared to the copper cable used in passive direct attach cables.
The primary difference between active and passive direct attach cables is the additional components of active transmitter and active receiver present in the active direct attach cable. On the contrary, passive direct attach cables do not have any active component in them rather they rely on the signals provided to them by the communication equipment.
The choice of using passive direct attach cable or active direct attach cable is purely circumstantial. Below are some pros and cons of using either type of cable.
Passive Direct Attach Cables
Cost effective
Flexible to bend
Thick – difficult to manage/harness
Shorter length
Electro-magnetic interference can cause packet loss and other issues
Active Direct Attach Cables
Cost effective
Longer lengths than passive direct attach cables
No electro-magnetic interference in active optical direct attach cables
Thinner – easy to manage and consume less rack space
Fiber cable cannot bend beyond a certain limit
Higher chance of failure than passive cable due to presence of active component