Cabling Data Center Process: Planning & Implementing its Infrastructure

Today’s data centers are the home to diverse bandwidth-demanding devices, like servers, storage systems, and backup devices which are interconnected by networking equipment. All these devices drive the need for reliable and manageable cabling infrastructure with higher performance and more flexibility for today and future growth. While managing the cabling in data centers, two main processes are included: planning the cabling infrastructure and implementing the cables.
Planning the Cabling Infrastructure
As networking equipment becomes denser, and port counts in data centers increase to several hundred ports, managing cables connected to these devices becomes a difficult challenge. Thus, during planning the cabling infrastructure, it’s wise to do the following:
Choosing Fiber Cable Assembly
This assembly has a single connector at one end of the cable and multiple duplex breakout cables at the other end, an alternative to avoid cable management. The LC (Lucent Connector) –MPO (Multifiber Push-On) breakout cable assemblies are designed to do just that. The idea is to pre-connect the high-density, high- port-count LC equipment with LC-MPO breakout cable to dedicated MPO modules within a dedicated patch panel, reducing equipment cabling clutter and improving cable management. This image below show the LC-MPO breakout cable assembly that consolidates six duplex LC ports into one MPO connection.
Nowadays, this breakout technology is widely used in 40 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) applications. Like QSFP-4X10G-AOC10M, this product is the QSFP to four SFP+ active optical breakout cable assembly with the 10m short reach.
Using Color to Identify Cables
Color coding simplifies management and can save you hours when you need to trace cables. Cables are available in many colors (table shown below). For instance, multi-mode fiber (MMF) looks in orange (OM1, OM2) and in aqua (OM3), while yellow is usually the color of single-mode fiber (SMF) which is taken as the transmission media when the required distance is as long as 2km, or 10km . Take WSP-Q40GLR4L for example, this 40GBASE-LR4L QSFP+ transceiver works through SMF for 2km link length.
Implementing the Cabling Infrastructure
While implementing the cables, the following tasks should be obeyed by.
Testing the Links
Testing cables throughout the installation stage is imperative. Any cables that are relocated or terminated after testing should be retested. Although testing is usually carried out by an authorized cabling implementer, you should obtain a test report for each cable installed as part of the implementation task.
Building a Common Framework for the Racks
this step is to stage a layout that can be mirrored across all racks in data centers for consistency, management, and convenience. Starting with an empty 4-post rack or two, build out and establish an internal standard for placing patch panels, horizontal cable managers, vertical cable managers, and any other devices that are planned for placement into racks or a group of racks. The INTENTION is to fully cable up the common components while monitoring the cooling, power, equipment access, and growth for the main components in the racks.
A good layout discourages cabling in between racks due to lack of available data ports or power supply ports, allowing more power outlets and network ports than you need. This will save you money in the long run as rack density increases, calling for more power and network connectivity. Using correct length cables, route patch cables up or down through horizontal patch panels alleviates overlapping other ports. Some cable slack may be needed to enable easy removal of racked equipment.
Documentation
Typically, the most critical task in cable management is to document the complete infrastructure: including diagrams, cable types, patching information, and cable counts. It’s advised update the documentation and keep it accessible to data center staff on a share drive or intranet Web site.
Stocking Spare Cables
It’s sestible to maintain an approximately the same amount on the installed cabling and ports in use, so as to face the environment variation or emergency.

Faster and Longer Fiber Optics for the future

Electrical engineers have broken key barriers that limit the distance information that can travel in fiber optic cables and still be accurately deciphered by a receiver. Obtained by UC San Diego Web Site.
Photonics researchers at the University of California, San Diego have increased the maximum power — and therefore distance — at which optical signals can be sent through optical fibers. This advance has the potential to increase the data transmission rates for the fiber optic cables that serve as the backbone of the internet, cable, wireless and landline networks. The research is published in the June 26 issue of the journal Science
The new study presents a solution to a long-standing roadblock to increasing data transmission rates in optical fiber: beyond a threshold power level, additional power increases irreparably distort the information travelling in the fiber optic cable.
“Today’s fiber optic systems are a little like quicksand.  With quicksand, the more you struggle, the faster you sink. With fiber optics, after a certain point, the more power you add to the signal, the more distortion you get, in effect preventing a longer reach. Our approach removes this power limit, which in turn extends how far signals can travel in optical fiber without needing a repeater,” said Nikola Alic, a research scientist from the Qualcomm Institute, the corresponding author on the Science paper and a principal of the experimental effort.
In lab experiments, the researchers at UC San Diego successfully deciphered information after it travelled a WOOPING! 12,000 kilometers through fiber optic cables with standard amplifiers and no repeaters, which are electronic regenerators.
The new findings effectively eliminate the need for electronic regenerators placed periodically along the fiber link. These regenerators are effectively supercomputers and must be applied to each channel in the transmission. The electronic regeneration in modern lightwave transmission that carries between 80 to 200 channels also dictates the cost and, more importantly, prevents the construction of a transparent optical network. As a result, eliminating periodic electronic regeneration will drastically change the economy of the network infrastructure, ultimately leading to cheaper and more efficient transmission of information.
The breakthrough in this study relies on wideband “frequency combs” that the researchers developed. The frequency comb described in this paper ensures that the signal distortions — called the “crosstalk” — that arises between bundled streams of information travelling long distances through the optical fiber are predictable, and therefore, reversible at the receiving end of the fiber.
“Crosstalk between communication channels within a fiber optic cable obeys fixed physical laws. It’s not random. We now have a better understanding of the physics of the crosstalk. In this study, we present a method for leveraging the crosstalk to remove the power barrier for optical fiber,” explained Stojan Radic, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UC San Diego and the senior author on the Science paper. “Our approach conditions the information before it is even sent, so the receiver is free of crosstalk caused by the Kerr effect.”
The photonics experiments were performed at UC San Diego’s Qualcomm Institute by researchers from the Photonics Systems Group led by Radic.
Pitch Perfect Data Transmission
The UC San Diego researchers’ approach is akin to a concert master who tunes multiple instruments in an orchestra to the same pitch at the beginning of a concert. In an optical fiber, information is transmitted through multiple communication channels that operate at different frequencies. The electrical engineers used their frequency comb to synchronize the frequency variations of the different streams of optical information, called the “optical carriers” propagating through an optical fiber. This approach compensates in advance for the crosstalk that occurs between the multiple communication channels within the same optical fiber. The frequency comb also ensures that the crosstalk between the communication channels is reversible.
“After increasing the power of the optical signals we sent by 20 fold, we could still restore the original information when we used frequency combs at the outset,” said UC San Diego electrical engineering Ph.D. student Eduardo Temprana, the first author on the paper. The frequency comb ensured that the system did not accumulate the random distortions that make it impossible to reassemble the original content at the receiver.
The laboratory experiments involved setups with both three and five optical channels, which interact with each other within the silica fiber optic cables.  The researchers note that this approach could be used in systems with far more communication channels. Most of today’s fiber optic cables include more than 32 of these channels, which all interact with one another.
In the Science paper, the researchers describe their frequency referencing approach to pre-compensate for nonlinear effects that occur between communication channels within the fiber optic cable. The information is initially pre-distorted in a predictable and reversible way when it is sent through the optical fiber. With the frequency comb, the information can be unscrambled and fully restored at the receiving end of the optical fiber.
“We are pre-empting the distortion effects that will happen in the optical fiber,” said Bill Kuo, a research scientist at the Qualcomm Institute, who was responsible for the comb development in the group.
The same research group published a theoretical paper last year outlining the fact that the experimental results they are now publishing were theoretically possible.

What are the interfaces and structures of fiber adapters?

Fiber optic adapters, also known as flanges or fiber optic connectors, are primarily used to connect two fiber optic connectors in a fiber cabling system, and are often assembled on various adapter panels and chassis.

When deploying a network, it is often necessary to connect two cables with the same connector or different connectors. Which product should you choose for fast cable connection and ensure stable performance? At this point, you need to use a fiber optic adapter with low insertion loss, durability, and repeatability. This article will mainly introduce the type of fiber adapter interface, structure, and the difference between fiber optic couplers and fiber adapter advantages and solutions.

Fiber Optic Adapter Definition

Fiber optic adapters, also known as flanges or fiber optic connectors, are primarily used to connect two fiber optic connectors in a fiber cabling system, and are often assembled on various adapter panels and chassis. Important fiber optic connection components are widely used in television networks, local area networks, video transmission, optical fiber communication systems, and FTTH fiber optic homes. Conventional fiber optic adapters are available in flanged and non-flanged versions, where the fiber optic adapter without a flange can be directly attached to a panel or tray, and the fiber optic adapter with a flange needs to be screwed.

Fiber Optic Adapter Interface Type

According to the diversity of fiber optic connectors, there are many types of interfaces for fiber optic adapters, as shown in the figure below. According to the same connector at both ends of the fiber adapter, its interface can be divided into six types: LC-LC, SC-SC, ST-ST, FC-FC, MPO-MPO, and E2000-E2000. According to the different connectors at both ends of the fiber adapter, its interface can be divided into six types: LC-SC, LC-ST, LC-FC, SC-FT, SC-FC, and FC-ST. These two ends have different connections. The adapter for the device is often referred to as a hybrid adapter. In addition, the use of fiber adapters for SC and FC interfaces is relatively more widely used in all interface types.

Fiber Optic Adapter Structure

As shown in the figure below, a common LC-LC duplex fiber adapter is used as an example. It is made of corrosion-resistant plastic, has good corrosion resistance and internal shading, and is made of stainless steel clips, full flanges, dust plugs. As well as high-precision ceramic bushings and other components, it can ensure that two connectors can be accurately connected while minimizing losses. It should be noted that the main function of the flange of the fiber optic adapter is to fix the adapter on the adapter panel. Therefore, a variety of fine and fixed flanges are particularly used for shooting.

Difference between fiber adapter and fiber coupler

As shown in the figure below, the design of the fiber adapter is very compact. It is a bridge between two cables that connect the same interface or two cables with different interfaces. The main reason for the fiber adapter and the fiber coupler is the connector type at both ends. Normally, if the two cables to be connected have the same type of connectors, they are called fiber couplers. If the two cables to be connected have different connectors, they are called fiber adapters. For example, a fiber optic adapter is used to connect the ST-ST connector. At this time, the connector at both ends of the fiber optic adapter is the same, so it can be called a fiber optic coupler. Otherwise, it is called a fiber adapter. However, fiber adapters have the same type of interface, but also have different types of interfaces. There are a total of twelve options.

Fiber Optic Adapter Benefits

Can provide a large number of high degree of matching and conversion adapters, including special male and female conversion optical adapter, with low insertion loss, good interchangeability, good repeatability, high temperature, acid and alkali resistant and stable performance. The following are more advantages of fiber optic adapters.

1.High protective dust plug
Each fiber adapter is equipped with a corresponding high protective dust cover, which can be kept clean, 100% to avoid contamination of the adapter and the cable by dust, and greatly reduce the failure rate.
2. Connect the cable + convenient and simple
It is possible to connect two identical connectors or different connectors. When two optical cables need to be connected, only two optical cables must be aligned with the ceramic sleeve and inserted separately.
3 high-precision ceramic casing
The fiber optic adapter uses a ceramic sleeve imported from abroad and adopts a high-density production process to achieve high-precision fast connection of the fiber end face, which is definitely your ideal choice.
4. Compact design and easy operation
Optical fiber adapters are lighter in weight, compact in design, easy to operate, and user-friendly to help you easily connect and remove cables.

Conclusion
Optical fiber adapter plays an increasingly important role in optical fiber connection. It is an inconspicuous and critical connection component. It has strong practicability and high cost performance. It is widely used, especially for television networks, local area networks, video transmission, and optical fiber. For applications such as communication systems and FTTH fiber-to-the-home applications, fiber optic adapters are a good choice and solution! If you have any fiber optic adapter requirements, please contact us at:product@fiber-mart.com.

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