Do You Know About Fiber Optic Splitter?


today’s optical network topologies, the advent of fiber optic splitter is significant in helping users maximum the performance of optical network circuits. Fiber optic splitter, or sometimes called as beam splitter, is a passive optical component that can split an incident light beam into two or more light beams, and vice versa. The device contains multiple input and output ends. Whenever the light transmission in a network needs to be divided, fiber optic splitter can be implemented for the convenience of network interconnections.
How Does Fiber Optic Splitter Work?
As for the working principle of fiber optic splitter, it can be generally described in the following way. When the light signal transmits in a single-mode fiber, the light energy can not entirely concentrated in the fiber core. A small amount of energy will be spread through the cladding of fiber. That is to say, if two fibers are close enough to each other, the transmitting light in an optical fiber can enter into another optical fiber. Therefore, the reallocation technique of optical signal can be achieved in multiple fibers. And this is how fiber optic splitter comes into being.
Classification of Fiber Optic Splitter
At present, there are two types of fiber optic splitters. One is known as PLC (planar lightwave circuit) splitter, and another one is known as FBT (fused biconical taper) splitter.
1) PLC splitter divides the incoming signal into multiple outputs by using an optic splitter chip. One optic splitter chip is able to achieve at most 64 ends. PLC splitter is usually used for larger applications. The losses of PLC splitter are not sensitive to the wavelength, which satisfies the need for multiple wavelengths transmission. PLC splitter’s configuration is compact and its size is small, thus the installation space can be greatly saved.
2) FBT splitter is fused with a heat source similar to a one-to-one fusion splice. Fibers are stretched under a heating zone to form a double cone. The cost of FBT splitter is lower due to the commonly used materials, and the splitting ratio is adjustable. But the losses are sensitive to wavelengths. Device should be chosen according to wavelengths. And it is unable to offer the uniform spectroscopy.
1) Passive monitoring application of fiber optic splitter is used for the maintenance of long-haul network, cable TV ATM circuit or local area/metro area network. The splitter taps into a small percentage of optical traffic. Majority of the signal arrives its destination, but a small percentage is directed to a local access port. The application can be done by manual operation for troubleshooting purposes or by connecting the splitter to a network monitoring system for ongoing maintenance and performance assessment.
2) Fiber optic splitter can also be used for FTTx/PON application. This enables to reduce the physical fiber usage or the basic quantity of required fibers. A single fiber can be split into many branches to support multiple end users. The strain on the fiber backbone can be greatly decreased through the application.
To sum up, fiber optic splitter provides a solution for improving the efficiency of optical infrastructures. PLC splitter and FBT splitter are varied in different aspects, hence choosing the right type of splitter for your network is also important. provides all the above fiber optic splitters. Please visit for more information.

What Is a Fiber Optic Splitter?


The fiber optic splitter is also referred to as optical splitter, which is an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device. It plays an important role in passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH and so on) by allowing a single PON interface to be shared among many subscribers. To achieve this, it is designed to split an incident light beam into two or more light beams and couple the light beams to the branch distribution as an optical fiber tandem device, which has the function to maximize the performance of network circuits.
How Optical Splitter Works?
In general, a optical splitter has many input and output terminals to attain the branch of the light beams and maximize the functionality of optical network circuits. The passive optical splitter can split, or separate, an incident light beam into several light beams at a certain ratio. As a simple example, Figure 1 shows how optical splitter with 1×4 split configurations can separate an incident light beam from a single input fiber cable into four light beams and transmit them through four individual output fiber cables. For instance, if the input fiber optic cable carries 1000 Mbps bandwidth, each user in the end of output fiber cables can use the network with 250 Mbps bandwidth.
As for the optical splitter with 2×64 split configurations, it is more complicated than the optical splitter with 1×4 split configurations. There are two input terminals and sixty-four output terminals in the optical splitter with 2×64 split configurations. Its function is to split two incident light beams from two individual input fiber cables into sixty-four light beams and transmit them through sixty-four light individual output fiber cables.
What should be noted is that the ejected light beams may or may not have the same optical power as the incident light beam. The designer would better to take it into consideration when designing the passive optical networks.
Optical Splitter Types Classified by Package Style
The optical splitter can be terminated with different forms of connectors, and the primary package could be box type or stainless tube type. Fiber optic splitter box is usually used with 2mm or 3mm outer diameter cable, while the other is normally used in combination with 0.9mm outer diameter cables. Besides, it has variously different split configurations, such as 1×2, 1×8, 2×32, etc. With the development of the optical splitter manufacturing technology, the fiber optic market can support the high-technical splitter used in the network where the split configurations are 2×64 or larger at present.
Optical Splitter Types Classified by Transmission Medium
According to the different transmission medium, there are single mode optical splitter and multimode optical splitter. For multimode ones, the phrase implies that the fiber is optimized for 850nm and 1310nm operation. For single mode ones, the phrase means that the fiber is optimized for 1310nm and 1550nm operation. Meanwhile, based on working wavelength difference, there are single window and dual window optical splitters. The single window fiber optic splitter is to use one working wavelength, while the dual window fiber optic splitter is with two working wavelengths.
Optical Splitters Types Classified by Manufacturing Technique
On the basis of different manufacturing technique, there are two fiber optic splitter types, which are popularly used nowadays. One is the traditional fused type optical splitter, fused biconic tapered (FBT) splitter, which features competitive prices; and the other is planar lightwave circuit (PLC) splitter, which has compact size and suits for high-density applications. Both of them have the advantages and can be used in different applications.
Fused Biconic Tapered (FBT) Optical Splitters
The FBT splitter (See Figure 2) is fabricated by the traditional technology with over 20 years history. Its manufacturing technique is relatively mature and the manufacturing cost is lower than PLC splitter, so that the FBT optical splitter can be deployed in a cost-effective manner in today’s fiber optic market.
In the manufacturing process of FBT splitter, there are two or more fibers placed closely together, typically twisted around each other and fused together by applying heat while the assembly is being elongated and tapered. The fused fibers are protected by a glass substrate and then protected by a stainless steel tube. Meanwhile, there is a signal source controls the desired coupling ratio to meet the requirements in applications.
Nowadays, FBT splitters are widely used in passive optical networks, especially in the network where the split configuration is not larger than 1×4. In fact, there is a slight drawback of FBT splitter, the split configuration. In details, if more than four splits are required, multiple FBT splitters can be spliced together in concatenation to multiply the amount of splits available, like a tree splitter. By using this design, the package size increases due to multiple FBT splitters and the insertion loss also increases with the additional splitters. Therefore, if high split counts are needed, small package size and low insertion loss are also required, you are suggested to choose a PLC splitter, instead of the FBT splitter.
Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) Optical Splitters
With a more recent technology, the PLC splitter (See Figure 3) provides a better solution for applications with larger split configurations. Clearly different from the manufacturing technique of FBT splitters, in the manufacturing process of PLC optical splitters, the waveguides are fabricated by using lithography onto a silica glass substrate, which allows for routing specific percentages of light. As a result, the PLC splitter offers very accurate splits with minimal loss in an efficient package.
PLC splitters
With the rapid growth of FTTx worldwide, the requirement for larger split configurations (1×32, 2×64, etc.) in these networks has also grown in order to serve mass subscribers. Due to its performance benefit of larger split configurations, the PLC splitter is more commonly used in the network where the split configuration is larger than 1×4.

Differences Between FBT Splitter and PLC Splitter

In future fiber networks, splitters provide capabilities that help users maximize the functionality of optical network circuits.according to different manufacture technologies, fiber optic splitters can be divided into PLC splitter and FBT splitter.

In future fiber networks, splitters provide capabilities that help users maximize the functionality of optical network circuits.according to different manufacture technologies, fiber optic splitters can be divided into PLC splitter and FBT splitter.

What is Fiber Optic Splitter?

Fiber Optic splitter is suitable for a fiber optic signal to be decomposed into mufti-channel optical signal output.

Fiber splitters are comprised of three fibers – two fiber legs on one side that overlap inside a junction with a third fiber at the common end. The fiber type used in each leg is typically the same, but can also be custom configured to have different fiber core diameters or wavelength ranges. fiber splitters are good for mixing light from two different locations and delivering it through a single fiber to a spectrometer or sample.  This ability can be used to combine illumination from two different light sources, or to mix light collected from two different sampling points before delivery to a spectrometer.


Optical Splitter is used to split the fiber optic light into several parts at a certain ratio. It is an important component used in Passive Optical Network (PON), therefore also called PON Splitter. There are mainly two kinds of PON splitters: one is the traditional fused type splitter known as FBT Coupler or FBT WDM splitter, which features competitive price; the other is the PLC Splitter based on the PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) technology, which has a compact size and suits for density applications. fiber optic splitter, also known as a beam splitter, is based on a quartz substrate of an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, similar to a coaxial cable transmission system. The optical network system also needs to be an optical signal coupled to the branch distribution. In which requires the fiber optic splitter is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals, especially applicable to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to achieve the branching of the optical signal.

FBT Splitters

FBT splitter is made out of materials that are easily available, for example steel, fiber, hot dorm and others. All of these materials are low-price, which determines the low cost of the device itself. Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) is used for splitting or combining optical signals and is tied to two or more fibers, and then melted in a cone machine, pull tensile and real-time monitoring of changes in splitting ratio, melt tensile splitting ratio to meet the requirements end, wherein one end of a fiber optic reserved ( The remaining cut off) as the input terminal and the other end a multitude of road outputs. Mature tapering process can only pull 1 × 4. 1 × 4 or more devices, with a plurality of 1 × 2 connected together. Then the whole package in the splitter box. The splitting or coupling ratio is controlled and can be modified upopn costumer request as well as the amount of splitting ports. The FBT coupler supports dicrete wavelength window.


PLC Splitters

PLC splitter manufacturing technology is more complex. It uses semiconductor technology (lithography, etching, developer technology) production, hence it is more difficult to manufacture. PLC refers to planar lightwave circuit. As a micro-optical device, PLC splitter uses an optical chip to split the input signal into various outputs. At the edge of the chip, there is a light circuit in ribbon form mounted on a carrier and fibers. PLC splitter typically adopts silica glass as the material of lightwave circuit and accepts different types of polished finishes. The substrate, waveguide and lid are three basic layers of the PLC splitter. For different applications, PLC splitters can be further categorized into different types including bare PLC splitters, blockless PLC splitters, ABS PLC splitters, LGX box PLC splitters, mini plug-in type PLC splitters, tray type PLC splitters and 1U rack mount PLC splitters.


Differences Between FBT Splitter and PLC Splitter

In this part, we will take a look at the main differences between FBT splitter and PLC splitter , which are listed in following.



PLC splitters are optimal split applications since they facilitate the construction of many optical circuits in a compact size. although the outer appearance and size of FBT and PLC fiber splitter seem rather similar, their internal technologies and specifications differ in various ways. Fiber-Mart provides both PLC splitters and FBT coupler splitters for EPON/GPON Systems.any question pls not hesitate to contact us.