What are Fiber Optic Patch Cables

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Fiber optic patch cable, often called fiber optic patch cord or fiber jumper cable, is a fiber optic cable terminated with fiber optic connectors on both ends. It has two major application areas: computer work station to outlet and fiber optic patch panels or optical cross connect distribution center. Fiber optic patch cables are for indoor applications only.
Fiber optic patch cables can be divided into different types based on fiber cable mode, cable structure, connector types, connector polishing types and cable sizes.
Fiber optic patch Cable Mode:
1. Single mode fiber patch cables:  Single mode fiber optic patch cables use 9/125 micron bulk single mode fiber cable and single mode fiber optic connectors at both ends. Single mode fiber optic cable jacket color is usually yellow. Here is the explanation of what is single mode and single mode fiber.
2. Multimode fiber patch cables: Multimode fiber optic patch cables use 62.5/125 micron or 50/125 micron bulk multimode fiber cable and terminated with multimode fiber optic connectors at both ends.  Multimode fiber optic cable jacket color is usually orange. Here is the explanation of what is multimode and multimode fiber.
3. 10gig multimode fiber optic patch cables:  10Gig multimode fibers are specially designed 50/125 micron fiber optimized for 850nm VCSEL laser based 10Gig Ethernet. They are backward compatible with existing network equipment and provide close to three times the bandwidth of traditional 62.5/125 multimode fibers. 10 Gigabit is rated for distances up to 300 meters using 850nm Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL). 10Gig fiber optic cable jacket is usually aqua.
Fiber patch Cable Structure:
1. Simplex fiber optic patch cables: Simplex fiber patch cable has one fiber and one connector on each end.
2. Duplex fiber optic patch cables: Duplex fiber patch cable has two fibers and two connectors on each end. Each fiber is marked “A” or “B” or different colored connector boots are used to mark polarity.
3. Ribbon fan-out cable assembly: For ribbon fan-out cable assembly, one end is ribbon fiber with multi fibers and one ribbon fiber connector such as MTP connector (12 fibers), the other end is multi simplex fiber cables with connectors such as ST, SC, LC, etc.
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Introduction Of Specialty Fibers For Optical Communication Systems

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Optical fiber communications have changed our lives over the last 40 years. There is no doubt that low-loss optical transmission fibers have been critical to the enormous success of optical communications technology. It is less well known however, that fiber-based components have also played a critical role in this success.
Initially, fiber optic transmission systems were point to point systems, with lengths significantly less than 100 km. Then in the 1980s, rapid progress was made on the research and understanding of optical components including fiber components. Many of these fiber components found commercial applications in optical sensor technology such as in fiber gyroscopes and other optical sensor devices. Simple components such as power splitters, polarization controllers, multiplexing components, interferometric devices, and other optical components proved to be very useful. A significant number of these components were fabricated from polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). You can buy the PM fiber patch cables from Fiberstore.
Although not a large market, optical fiber sensor applications spurred research into the fabrication of new components such as polarization maintaining components, other components such as power splitters were fabricated from standard multimode (MM) or single-mode telecommunication fiber. In the telecommunication sector, the so-called passive optical network was proposed for the already envisioned fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network. This network relied heavily on the use of passive optical splitters. These splitters were fabricated from standard single-mode fibers (SMFs). Click here to get the price single mode cable fiber optic. Although FTTH, at a large scale, did not occur until decades later, research into the use of components for telecommunications applications continued.
The commercial introduction of the fiber optical amplifier in the early 1990s revolutionized optical fiber transmissions. With amplification, optical signals could travel hundreds of kilometers without regeneration. This had major technical as well as commercial implications. Rapidly, new fiber optic components were introduced to enable better amplifiers and to enhance these transmission systems. Special fibers were required for the amplifier, for example, erbium-doped fibers. The design of high-performance amplifier fibers required special considerations of mode field diameter, overlap of the optical field with the fiber active core, core composition, and use of novel dopants. Designs radically different from those of conventional transmission fiber have evolved to optimize amplifier performance for specific applications. The introduction of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology put even greater demands on fiber design and composition to achieve wider bandwidth and flat gain. Efforts to extend the bandwidth of erbiumdoped fibers and develop amplifiers at other wavelength such as 1300nm have spurred development of other dopants. Codoping with ytterbium (Yb) allows pumping from 900 to 1090nm using solid-state lasers or Nd and Yb fiber lasers. Of recent interest is the ability to pump Er/Yb fibers in a double-clad geometry with high power sources at 920 or 975 nm. Double-clad fibers are also being used to produce fiber lasers using Yb and Nd.
Besides the amplication fiber, the EDFA (Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier) requires a number of optical components for its operation. These include wavelength multiplexing and polarization multiplexing devices for the pump and signal wavelengths. Filters for gain flattening, power attenuators, and taps for power monitoring among other optical components are required for module performance. Also, because the amplifier-enable transmission distance of hundreds of kilometers without regeneration, other propagation propeties became important. These properties include chromatic dispersion, polarization dispersion, and nonlinearities such as four-wave mixing (FWM), self-and cross-phase modulation, and Raman and Brillouin scattering. Dispersion compensating fibers were introduced in order to deal with wavelength dispersion. Broadband coupling losses between the transmission and the compensating fibers was an issue. Specially designed mode conversion or bridge fibers enable low-loss splicing among these thre fibers, making low insertion loss dispersion compensators possible. Fiber components as well as microoptic or in some instance planar optical components can be fabricated to provide for these applications. Generally speaking, but not always, fiber components enable the lowest insertion loss per device. A number of these fiber devices can be fabricated using standard SMF, but often special fibers are required.
Specialty fibers are designed by changing fiber glass composition, refractive index profile, or coating to achieve certain unique properties and functionalities. In addition to applications in optical communications, specialty fibers find a wide range of applications in other fields, such as industrial sensors, biomedical power delivery and imaging systems, military fiber gyroscope, high-power lasers, to name just a few. There are so many linds of specialty fibers for different applications. Some of the common specialty fibers include the following:
Active Fibers: These fibers are doped with a rare earth element such as Er, Nd, Yb or another active element, The fibers are used for optical amplifiers and lasers. Erblium doped fiber amplifiers are a goog example of fiber components using an active fiber. Semiconductor and nanoparticle doped fibers are becoming an interesting research topic.
Polarization Control Fibers: These fibers have high birefringence that can maintain the polarization state for a long length of fiber. The high birefringence is introduced either by asymmetric stresses such as in Panda, and bowtie design. If both polarization modes are available in the fiber, the fiber is called PMF. If only one polarization mode propagates in the fiber while the other polarization mode is cutoff, the fiber is called single polarization fiber.
Dispersion Compensation Fibers: Fibers have opposite chromatic dispersion to that of transmission fibers such as standard SMFs and nonzero dispersion shifted fibers (NZDSFs). The fibers are used to make dispersion compensation modules for mitigating dispersion effects in a fiber transmission system.
Highly Nonlinear Optical Fibers: Fibers have high nonlinear coefficient for use in optical signal processing and sensing using optical nonlinear effects such as the optical Kerr effect, Brillouin scattering, and Raman scattering.
Coupling Fibers or Bridge Fibers: Fibers have mode field diameter between the standard SMF and a specialty fiber. The fiber serves as an intermendiate coupling element to reduce the high coupling loss between the standard SMF and the specialty fiber.
Photo-Sensitive Fibers: Fibers whose refractive index is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light. This type of fiber is used to produce fiber gratings by UV light exposure.
High Numerical Aperture (NA) Fibers: Fibers with NA higher than 0.3. These fibers are used for power delivery and for short distance communication applications.
Special SMFs: This category includes standard SMF with reduced cladding for improved bending performance, and specially designed SMF for short wavelength applications.
Specially Coated Fibers: Fibers with special coating such as hermitic coating for preventing hydrogen and water penetration, metal coating for high temperature applications.
Mid-Infrared Fibers: Non-silica glass-based fibers for applications between 2 and 10 micron
Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs): Fibers with periodic structure to achieve fiber properties that are not available with conventional fiber structures.

HOW TO USE & MAINTAINE THE FUSION SPLICING MORE EFFICIENTLY?

What is Fusion Splicer?

Fusion splicer may be the act of joining two optical fibers end-to-end using heat. The thing is to fuse both the fibers together in such a way that light passing with the fibers is not scattered or reflected back from the splice, and thus the splice as well as the region surrounding it are almost as strong because virgin fiber itself. The basic fusion splicer apparatus includes two fixtures which the fibers are mounted and two electrodes. Inspection microscope assists in the placement in the prepared fiber ends into a fusion-splicing apparatus.The fibers they fit in to the apparatus, aligned, and then fused together.

Initially, fusion splicing used nichrome wire as the heating unit to melt or fuse fibers together. New fusion-splicing techniques have replaced the nichrome wire with fractional co2 lasers, electric arcs, or gas flames to heat the fiber ends, causing them to fuse together. The little size of the fusion splice along with the development of automated fusion-splicing machines make electric arc fusion the most popular splicing approaches to commercial applications.

Fusion splicers are automatic machines that you need to either choose factory recommended settings or you set the splicing parameters yourself.  There are five basic steps to fusion splicing with a splicing machine.

1.Put on the fusion splice protection sleeve.

2.Strip the fiber. Strip back all fiber coatings down to the 125um bare fiber. Clean the bare fiber with 99% isopropyl alcohol.

3.Cleave the fiber. The fiber needs to be cleaved with a high precision cleaver. Most splicing machines come with a recommended cleaver. Fiber cleaving is a very important step as the quality of the splice will depend on the quality of the cleave.

4.Put the fibers into the fiber holders in the fusion splicer. Press the start button to start the fusion splicing

5.Heat shrink the protection sleeve to protect the splicing joint.

The most common parts of a fiber fusion splicer include Electrodes and V-Grooves. Fusion splicers are dependent upon high-quality electrodes to focus that critical arc of electricity. As the electrodes wear from use, electrodes gradually worn and lead to weaker splices and higher splice losses. Cleaning electrode is part of the essential maintenance of fusion splicer and will not restore the performance of the fusion splicer as electrodes need to be replaced.

Always replace fusion splicer electrodes as a pair. For optimal performance, electrodes should also be aligned when they are replaced. This is a tuning process to maximize the performance of your splicer.

Maintained Methods of Fusion Splicer Parts

1. Electrical welding electrode life is generally about 2000, after a long time the electrode will be oxidized, resulting in the discharge current is too large leaving the splice loss value increases. You can remove the electrodes, medical cotton wool dipped in alcohol to gently wipe and then install the fusion splicer, and discharge cleaned once. If repeated washing, the discharge current is still too large, it shall replace the electrode.

Replace the electrode first remove the protection of the electrode chamber cover, loosen the screws fixed on the electrode and remove the upper electrode. Then release the top wire fixed to the lower electrode, remove the lower electrode. Installation of new electrode opposite action of the demolition order, require two electrode tip clearance: 2.6 ± 0.2mm, with the optical fiber symmetry. Under normal circumstances electrode is not required to be adjusted. Not touch the tip of the electrode in the replacement process, prevent damage, and should avoid the electrodes to fall inside the machine. After replacing the electrode, carry out calibration of the arc position.

Fiber Optic Fusion Spare Electrodes

Care of the electrode used for a long time, the tip of the electrode will produce sediment discharge poor, then there will be a “hissing” sound, then need to clean the electrode. The recommended the regular welding machine electrodes care that clean the electrode.

2. 4 clean V-shaped groove welding machine tune the core direction of the upper and lower driving range each only tens of microns, slightly foreign body will make the fiber image deviation from the normal position, resulting in normal alignment. At this time the need for timely clean the V-groove:

A. Off the windshield of the welding machine.

B. Open the fiber optic pressure head and the clamping platen.

C.Stick with a cotton swab dipped in anhydrous alcohol (or sharpened toothpick) single wipe in a V-Groove Fiber Aligner.

Note: Avoid using hard objects to clean the V-groove or V-groove on the force, to avoid bad V-groove or V-groove inaccurate, resulting in the instrument can’t properly use.

Proper use of Fusion Splicer is to reduce an important guarantee of the optical fiber splice loss and key links. You always should be strictly in accordance with the instructions of the welding machine and operational procedures. And properly set the welding parameters according to the type of fiber (including pre-discharge current, time and the main discharge current, the main discharge time). Do as above, the working life of your fusion splicer certain can be longer.

Conclusion

Despite the advances in fiber and fusion splicing technology, there are still many aspects of splicing of which practitioners must remain aware. Differences in fibers, equipment, environment and technique can yield different splice loss results. It is important to learn how to use and maintain the fusion machine more efficiently.

Here are some guidelines for splicing contractors and technicians.

Follow the applicable equipment manufacturer’s guidelines for setup and maintenance of all splice equipment. All fusion splicer have maintenance requirements which should be described in the operating manual. Besides cleaning regularly, they require electrode alignment and occasional replacement. Follow manufacturer’s requirements for servicing.

Maintain clean equipment and a clean splice environment, being especially wary of windy and/or dusty conditions.

Use the fusion splicer’s estimated splice loss reading as an initial go/no-go evaulation of the splice.

Splice loss specifications should be set with the total link power budget in mind and be based on average splice loss.

For newest quotes of Fusion Splicers, For more info, please browse our website – www.Fiber-Mart.com or by sending an email to product@fiber-mart.com.

SELECTING A FIBER OPTIC PATCH CORD

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Your Guide to Selecting the Perfect Patch Cord for the Job
fiber-mart.com receive many questions when it comes to the topic of Networks and Datacom, but one subject I believe many can benefit from is how to determine the differences between one fiber optic patch cord and another. Now, fiber optic patch cords come in a variety of cable and connector types. In order to obtain the proper patch cord you need to determine several attributes:
Cable Type — Fiber Optic cable comes in two general types, Single-Mode and Multi-Mode fiber.
Single-Mode fiber cable generally has a 9 Micron diameter glass fiber. There are two sub groups (referred to as OS1 and OS2) but most cable is “dual rated” to cover both classifications.
Multi-Mode fiber cable can have several different diameters and classifications of fiber strands.
The two diameters currently in use are 62.5 Micron and 50 Micron.
Within the 50 Micron diameter Multi-Mode cable, there are three different grades (referred to as OM2, OM3, and OM4). The cable types used in the patch cord should match that of the network cabling to which they are attached via the patch panel.
The fiber cable may be available in different “jacket diameters” (such as 2mm or 3mm). Thinner diameters (1.6 or 2mm) may be preferable in dense installation within a single rack since they take up less space and are more flexible.
Cables that route from rack to rack (especially via cable tray) may be more suitable if they have the thicker jacket that results in larger diameters thus making them more rigid.
Flammability of the jacket material could become an issue if the area they are in has special requirements for flame spread or products of combustion in case of a fire. In these cases, patch cords may have to be classified as “Plenum Rated” (OFNP) rather than “Riser Rated” (OFNR).
Simplex or Duplex — Unlike copper patch cords which send information in both directions (having multiple pairs of conductors with which to do so), most fiber patch cord cables have a single strand of fiber allowing for signal flow in one direction only.
Connecting equipment so that it can send and receive information requires two strands of fiber (one to transmit and one to receive information). This can be accommodated by using two “Simplex” (single strand of fiber) cables for each equipment interconnection or a “Duplex” cable, with conductors and/or connectors bonded together in pairs.
Length — Overall length of the patch cord may be specified in feet or meters, depending on your preference.
Connector Type — See the connector type descriptions below. Some patch cords may have different connector types on each end to accommodate interconnection of devices with dissimilar connectors. In some cases, there may be a connector on only one end, and bare or unterminated fiber on the other. These are usually referred to as “Pigtails” rather than “Patch Cords”.

FIBER PATCH CABLES AND THEIR USES

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Fiber patch cables are the backbone of the fiber optics industry. These fiber patch cables are strands of optically pure glass as thin as human hair.
These cables carry information via mode of transmission of light. Short patch leads usually made with stranded wire are flexible patch cables. The fiber patch cables are used to plug one piece of equipment into another. To sum, these cables are the most opted solution these days for the networking and broadcasting industry.
They have various uses in all kinds of industries. Fiber patch cables are used in:
Medical imaging
Mechanical engineering
LAN applications
Cable TV networks
Telephone lines,
and More!
Fiber patch cables have revolutionized the total network industry of telephones, cable, internet, audio applications, etc. The fiber patch cables offer accurate signal transfer which is totally distortion free. Thus due to these cables the audio or video transmission is completely distortion free and crystal clear. Since these fiber patch cables use light as a mode of transmission there is no hazard of electric interferences or any tampering.
Fiber Patch Cables Used for?
Fiber patch cables are used to two nearby components with fiber connectors. Fiber patch cables come with their respective connectors. They can be an ideal and easy replacement of copper cables because they use the same RJ45 connector as copper patch cables.
What are Fiber Patch Cables Available in?
Fiber patch cables are available in simplex, duplex, multimode, single mode with STST, STSC, SCSC connectors. Fiber patch cables are of two prominent types – single mode and multimode. Single mode fiber patch cables are used in long-distance high capacity voice applications like telephone transmission or long distance gigabit networking. These fiber patch cables can use 9/125 micron bulk fiber cables and connectors at both ends.
Multimode fiber patch cables are used in computer industry which is standard for data applications like local area network, wide area network, etc. Fiber patch cables in multimode are available in 50µm and 62.5µm. SC, ST, LC, FC, MT-RJ, E2000 and MU connectors have polished ceramic ferrules for precision and durability. The SC and LC duplex fiber patch cables come equipped with a clip to maintain polarity.
ST to ST fiber patch cable gives unlimited bandwidth at high speeds over long distances. These fiber patch cables are ideal for connections between fiber patch panels, hubs, switches, media converters and routers, etc. Fiber patch cables provide higher speeds and increased bandwidth, compared to conventional twisted-pair copper cable. These fiber patch cables are compatible with all standard fiber optic equipment and connectors. Ceramic connectors of these fiber patch cables ensure low signal loss and high reliability along with total immunity to electrical and electromagnetic interference.

JUMPERS: PICK THE RIGHT PATCH CORD FOR YOUR FIBER OPTIC NETWORK

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fiber jumper—more commonly called a fiber patch cord—is a length of fiber cable that connects end devices or network hardware to your structured cabling system. The cable is terminated with LC, SC, MTRJ or ST connectors at each end.
Jumpers come in simplex or duplex and should be chosen based on your network needs. Figuring that part out is as easy as knowing the difference between its and it’s when you’re writing blog posts.
SIMPLEX VS DUPLEX JUMPERS
Simplex cables, a single strand of glass encased in plastic, are generally used when a data transmission needs to travel in only one direction. They’re a great choice for connections within buildings or across large areas like cable TV networks.
Duplex cables, two strands of fiber in a single cable, are like a two-lane highway. The signal needs to go both ways, called bi-directional communication, between your active gear.
One cable is transmitting the signal, while the other is receiving it. Duplex cables are typically used in larger work stations, switches, servers and on major networking hardware.
Duplex cables also come in zipcord or uniboot construction. In zipcord, two fiber strands are fused together but are easily torn apart when it’s time to mine out either the transmission or receiver strand.
For uniboot, the two fibers merge into a single connector at either end, making replacement and maintenance a bit more difficult and costly than zipcord cables.
CHOOSING YOUR PATCH CORD
Single-mode simplex fiber carries only one ray of light at a time. It’s extremely reliable and holds a high-carrying capacity for long-distance transmissions.
Since it requires less material, it’s usually more cost-effective than duplex cable. It’s the most commonly used cable in modern communications, because of its high capacity, allowing for higher transmission speeds and more bandwidth.
The risk you run is the amount of fiber you’re going to have on your fiber distribution frames.
You know … spaghetti syndrome.
Duplex jumpers help keep your data center cleaner and tidier. They allow you to require less cable, and maintenance becomes a lot easier.
The choice between simplex and duplex jumpers really depends on your network—who it’s serving and how complex it needs to be.

FIBER OPTIC COLLIMATORS

Fiber collimator is an effective passive optical component used for laser beam collimating. and Fiber optic collimators come in many forms.

There are more things to consider  when it comes to purchasing collimators .

  • LENS TYPE
  • SIZE DOES MATTER
  • SPHERICAL OR CHROMATIC ABERRATION
  • SINGLEMODE OR MULTIMODE
  • PAIRING, TARGETING, OR LASER PIGTAILING
  • 0 DEGREE OR 8 DEGREE
  • ALTERNATIVES

 

Introduction to Fiber Collimator

Fiber Optic Collimators are devices used to expand and collimate the output light at the fiber end, or to couple light beams between two fibers. They are a module that combine a fiber and a lens, and has a function that produces parallel beams. We offer a range of fixed and adjustable fiber optic collimation packages for collimating a laser beam from the end of an FC/APC, FC/PC, or SMA connectorized fiber while maintaining diffraction-limited performance at the design wavelength.  They are available with different wavelengths (850 nm, 980 nm, 1060 nm, 1310 nm, 1550 nm) or fiber options (SM fiber, MM fiber, PM fiber, and LMA fiber, etc).

A fiber collimator is a device that narrows a beam of particles or waves. It can either cause the directions of light to become more aligned in a specific direction, or cause the spatial cross section of the beam to become smaller. Usually, fiber collimator is required to naturally transform diverging lights from an optical fiber to a parallel beam of light. It consists a single-mode or multimode fiber pigtail and a collimating lens. Collimator can also be used to calibrate other optical devices to check if all elements are aligned on the optical axis.

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Characteristics

  • Low Insertion Loss and Return Loss
  • Low Back Reflection
  • High Extinction Ratio
  • Low Insertion Loss
  • Wide Operating Wavelength and Temperature
  • Scientific design with serious processing art


Applications

  • Optical cable jumper or pigtail cable
  • Laser Beam Collimating
  • Optical cable jumper or pigtail cable
  • PM Isolator and PW WDM
  • Laser Beam Collimating

 

How Does It Work?

When placing the fiber end on the collimator lens, the light will be aligned to a parallel direction. Then through a slight adjustment of fiber end position, the working distance is obtained. The working distance of fiber collimator is related to the distance between fiber end and lens. According to the actual demands, we can determine the parameters of fiber collimator, such as distance between fiber end and lens, beam radius, accuracy, to achieve better performance.

diffractive-collimator-layout.png

Conclusion

Selecting the right type of fiber collimator is essential to the performance of network, you should consider your project requirements as important factors. Fiber-MART offer a range of fixed and adjustable fiber optic collimation packages for collimating a laser beam from the end of an FC/APC, FC/PC, or SMA connectorized fiber while maintaining diffraction-limited performance at the design wavelength. For more information, welcome to visit www.fiber-mart.com or contact me by E-mail: service@fiber-mart.com