Do you know Fiber Optical Transponders?

As we know, transponder is important in optical fiber communications, it is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data and the maximum distance the signal can travel.
Functions of a Fiber Optical Transponder includes:
Electrical and optical signals conversion
Serialzation and deserialization
Control and monitoring
Applications of Fiber Optical Transponder
Multi-rate, bidirectional fiber transponders convert short-reach 10gb/s and 40 gb/s optical signals to long-reach, single-mode dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical interfaces.
The modules can be used to enable DWDM applications such as fiber relief, wavelength services, and Metro optical DWDM access overtay on existing optical infrastructure.
Supporting dense wavelength multiplexing schemes, fiber optic transponders can expand the useable bandwidth of a single optical fiber to over 300 Gb/s.
Transponders also provide a standard line interface for multiple protocols through replaceable 10G small form-factor pluggable (XFP) client-side optics.
The data rate and typical protocols transported include synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy (SONET/SDH) (OC-192 SR1), Gigabit Ethernet (10GBaseS and 10GBaseL), 10G Fibre Channel (10 GFC) and SONET G.709 forward error correction (FEC)(10.709 Gb/s).
Fiber optic transponder modules can also support 3R operation (reshape, retime, regenerate) at supported rates.
Often, fiber optic transponders are used to for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include litter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty.Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements. Provides Optical Transponders Solution
Let’s image that the architecture that can not support automated reconfigureability. Connectivity is provided via a manual Fibre Optic Patch Panel, a patch panel where equipment within an office is connected via fiber cables to one side (typically in the back), and where short patch cables are used on the other side (typically in the front) to manually interconnect the equipment as desired.  There is a point that Fibre Optic Patch Panel, people usually different ports patch panel , for example, 6, 8, 12, 24 port fiber patch panel and they according to different connectors to choose different patch panel, such as LC patch panel,  LC patch panel,  MTP patch panel…
optical network
The traffic that is being added to or dropped from the optical layer at this node is termed add/drop traffic, the traffic that is transmitting the mode is called through traffic. Regardless of the traffic type, note that all of the traffic entering and exiting the node is processed by a WDM transponder. In the course of converting between a WDM-compatible optical signal and a client optical signal, the transponder processes the signal in the electrical domain. Thus, all traffic enters the node in the optical domain, is converted to the electrical domain, and is returned to the optical domain. This architecture, where all traffic undergoes optical electrical (OEO) conversion, is referred to as the OEO architecture.

How to choose the MPO system for your Fiber Infrastructure

Nowadays, the demand for high connection speeds is increasing at an intimidating pace. People need to send -and receive- more data than ever, and the technology that’s available to them often seems to just not being able to keep up.
Optical fiber seems to represent the best choice when it comes to offering higher speeds -currently required by data center networks. In contrast to multimode and single mode optical networks, which were typically based on duplex fiber links, parallel fiber (MPO-based) connectivity has now become the ideal go-to choice, since it allows the use of pre-terminated systems that can be used in a quick and efficient way.
Nonetheless, this type of connectivity had been used to deliver duplex connectivity combined with duplex modules and breakouts. The selection of multifiber interfaces responds to the demands of increasing applications and density.
This turnover has led to a general consideration of using duplex connectivity, but at the same time, it needs to fill the necessity of including a combination of parallel and duplex interfaces.
Apart from considering these new iterations, it is essential to have a solid grasp on the evolution of network equipment and on the advantages of implementing an infrastructure based on duplex connections.
That being said, let us walk you through the Ethernet Roadmap.
There are several applications housed in data centers, which implies that those applications will demand a diversity in the connectivity topologies. It is commonly known that most networks use duplex links, but the demand for higher speeds requires using duplex links into other groups of links, which is when the term of parallel links enter the debate.
Likewise, this new incorporation asks for certain cabling structures that can handle this new array of options while having the acute vision of what the new results from this structures may provide us with. In other words, what we’re now witnessing it’s a migration from arrangements that involve duplex links into parallel link options that need to cover the requirements of higher speeds.
The great thing about parallel links is that they reduce the operation costs at a significant rate. Since they offer higher connectivity densities, it reduces the power consumption to send that data. This type of connection multiplies the information been transported, so it offers a notable reduction in the time employed in the transmission of information.
The increase of speeds has also developed a certain progress when it comes to the outlining of separate transmission lanes. In the end, the throughput will be augmented due to the incorporation of additional fiber, or the multiplexing over just a single a fiber.
Each one of these parameters will determine the selection of the fiber media and the options for cabling that will become the most appropriate for your data center. The decision of moving from single and duplex links to parallel ones will surely affect your cabling choice. This may traduce to a significant cost at the beginning, but it shall be seen as an investment in the long term.
The first thing you need to do is to determine the desired capacity that your data center will possess in the short-term future. Your team can come in handy forecasting this scenario since it is very well equipped with considering, evaluating and even trying several technologies, platforms and routing strategies.
After coming to terms to answering each one of the specific requirements demanded by your new system, the pre-terminated MPO-based fiber cabling system will enable a quicker utilisation and a certain flexibility of configuration, along with a cabling topology that corresponds appropriately with the new direction and desired performance of your data center direction.
Multimode fiber is definitely the primary media choice for the enterprise data center. Each one of the diverse types of multimode fiber (MMF) will affect the scale and scope of the data center that can be supported when speeds increase, so you need to take that into consideration.
Aside from combining “lanes” to provide for higher and better link speeds, multiplexing several wavelengths on a single pair of fibers offers great results.
The great thing about this new structure of links is that it offers a new set of applications. Depending on the type of configuration, migrations can be enabled between duplex and parallel optics.
This quality is very eloquent when it comes to supporting the notion of the flexibility offered by parallel links. If new needs come up, you should be able to accommodate those necessities by making adjustments to your new structure in your data center.
Every decision that you make towards implementing parallel links will affect your structure -and space- of your cabling, so every single analysis that you can make before adding something to your new structure should be mandatory.
To put it mildly, you need to be aware of the physical space every new configuration is going to occupy. You can have lots of great ideas for new connections, but if you can’t afford the space for it, none of them will work out. But don’t worry, you just need to gain conscience of the dimensions of your cabling configurations so you can design them and implement them properly.
The good thing about duplex cables is that they are very flexible, so not all of these considerations should be thought of as limitations. You can work around them -and, trust us, you should!
By merely thinking about all of this, you could be concerned about the cost it implies, and we hear you. Notwithstanding, this is a cost you need to assume. Not only because the current situation demands it, but also because this decision will stand out as an investment for the near future.
New designs imply adjustments so you can incorporate duplex and parallel connections, meaning that perhaps new racks or more space for your cabling will be needed. This inclusion will also call for changes in the management of your team, which will have to face new ways to handle these devices.
Human beings tend to reject at first all sorts of changes, it’s in our nature, but if you are totally convinced on the benefits that each and single one of these procedures will bring to your data center in the future, you will work through them focused on having the vision aiming at an impending success. The current concerns need to be replaced with a relentless optimism that your work will be enhanced in the long run.
We hope you find this article very useful and that this information can help you increase the speed -and hopefully the quality- of your data center.

Fiber optics applications to Internet of things

Those days you didn’t have breakfast at home because you forgot to buy eggs are in the past. Nowadays your refrigerator sends you an alert telling you you are running out of products. And that’s possible thanks to the Internet of Things.
The Internet of Things has many years being a hot topic, but what exactly is it?
It can be defined as a future in which everyday objects will be connected to Internet and will be able to communicate with each other.  Jacob Morgan describes The Internet of Things on Forbes as “the concept of basically connecting any device with an on and off switch to the Internet (and/or to each other). This includes everything from cell phones, coffee makers, washing machines, headphones, lamps, wearable devices and almost anything else you can think of.”
And yes, it is going to impact the way you live and the way you work. Ericcson estimates 50 billion devices will be connected to Internet by 2020, while Gartner predicts there will be roughly 500 networked devices in a typical family house.
#IoT Tweets
Cars, refrigerators, lamps, clocks, phones and wearables devices will be embedded with sensors that will make them possible to gain intelligence and the ability to communicate with other objects and with people. So, in the future the communication will be machine-to-machine (M2M), machine-to-person (M2P) and person-to-person (P2P).
So your car is going to be able to alert you if the tire pressure is low and tell you places you can go to solve that problem. Or your clock will tell your coffee maker to start making that delicious beverage because is almost time for you to wake up. Sounds cool, right?
And how exactly is the Internet of Thing related with optical fiber?
When all your gadgets and devices are connected and communicate with each other, data transmission needs to be fast, and there is no other transmission media able to reach higher speeds than optical fiber. Therefore, the Internet of things needs optical fiber broadband to reach wirelessly 100Gpsb speeds and reproducing 4K videos in just seconds.
Billions of devices connected with each other put a big issue on the spotlight: security. Will anybody be able to hack your phone and have access to your house? Is it going to bring more security and privacy threats? It probably will. But then again, optical fiber networks will be the solution because they are the most secure ones as it is really hard to hack them without being detected.
Also, with fiber there aren’t going to be interference issues as it is immune to electromagnetic currents and can be installed basically everywhere, from underwater to high-temperature places.
As Kyle Hollifield, senior vice president at Magellan Advisors, said at CES 2016 FTTH networks needs to be prepared for the added traffic, because network capacity will be critical for the success of smart cities and homes when everything is connected with everything.

Optical fiber beyond telecommunication

Optical fiber is great for carrying huge amounts of data over long distances at unimagined speeds and providing us with high-speed Internet connections that nowadays are more a necessity than a luxury, but they also have an excellent throughput in other fields beside telecommunications, since they are used from non-invasive surgeries to pool illumination.
Optical fiber made it possible for surgeries to be minimally invasive and to have advanced diagnostic technologies due to implements like optical fiber cameras. Medical optical fiber applications also include X-ray imaging, ophthalmic lasers, light therapy, dental head pieces, surgical microscopy and endoscopy. The study “Global Market Study on Medical Fiber Optics: Asia to Witness Highest Growth by 2019” says that medical fiber global market will reach a value of USD 1,336.1 million by 2019.
Optical fiber is used in the decoration field because it provides an attractive and economical way of illumination. It is used at museums exhibitions due to their heat-free attribute and in underwater lighting because they don’t conduct electricity.
Optical fibers also provide extremely focused light, they are long-lasting, look like neon, colors can change according to the applied filter and their installment and maintenance is easy. Also they look really cute, don’t they?
Lighting applications with optical fiber are being used in the automotive industry too because they it can be installed in reduced spaces and it transmits cold light. Companies like Volvo, Audi, BMW, Jaguar and Saab use fiber to build the communication system that connects sensors with airbags and traction control devices in order to increase passenger’s safety.
Roll Royce’s trademark “Starlight headliner” is built with over 1300 optical fibers which make Phantom’s ceiling look like a starlight night.
Optical fiber sensors measure, pressure and strain. But they are also used to look for displacements, vibrations and rotations in civil structures such as highways, buildings and bridges or smart structures like airplanes wings and sport equipment. They are also very helpful for monitoring oil, power cables and pipelines in places that are really hard to reach.
Sensors work with a detector arrangement that measures the subtle changes that happen in the light as it travels through an optical fiber.  They offer a lot of advantages because they don’t require electrical cables, therefore can be safely used in high-voltage and electrical environments.

New hardware could make FTTH expansion cheaper

A new way to solve the “last mile problem” and provide real fiber connections to households was developed by scientists and researchers from the UCL Optical Networks Group and UNLOC program in London as they designed a simplified optical receiver that could be mass-produced cheaply.
Although current networks are mostly composed with optical fiber, they usually terminate in cabinets away from the user premises and that last mile that goes from the cabinet to the end user is mostly made with copper, which slows down connections, because it is really expensive to install in every home the optical receiver needed to read the optical signals.
“We have designed a simplified optical receiver that could be mass-produced cheaply while maintaining the quality of the optical signal. The average data transmission rates of copper cables connecting homes today are about 300 Mb/s and will soon become a major bottleneck in keeping up with data demands, which will likely reach about 5-10 Gb/s by 2025. Our technology can support speeds up to 10 Gb/s, making it truly futureproof”, said Dr Sezer Erkilinc, lead researcher from UCL Electronic & Electrical Engineering.
The design of the optical receiver developed by UCL researchers is simplified because it contains a quarter of the connectors that are usually used in a conventional receiver. It is able to improve sensitivity and network reach compared to current technology. When commercialized, the cost of installing and maintaining a real FTTH network will be dramatically reduced.
 The laser stability of the receiver is currently being tested by the researchers, but Dr Erkilinc said once they it is quantified, they will be in a strong position to take the receiver design to trials and commercialize it.

what Fiber to the x (FTTX) means?

Fiber to the X is a term used to described any broadband network that uses optical fiber to provide all or a part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications.  Fiber optic cables are able to carry much more data than copper cables that are actually used in almost every connection.
Fiber optics work better especially over long distances, copper telephone networks built in the 20th century are now being replaced by fiber optic cables.
FTTX is arranged into two groups: FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fiber laid all the way to the premises/home/building) and FTTC/N (fiber laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection).
The telecommunications industry has several types of FTTX, they most used of this types of fiber, in The terms of most widespread use today are:
FTTP : This term means “fiber to the premises” and is used either as a blanket term for both FTTH and FTTB, or where the fiber network includes both homes and small businesses.
FTTH : FTTH means “fiber to the home” and this type of fiber reaches the limits of the living space, such as a box on the outside wall of a home. Passive optical networks and point-to-point Ethernet are architectures that deliver triple-play services over FTTH networks directly from an operator’s central office.
FTTB : This term means “fiber to the building”. We call FTTB to the fiber that reaches the building or a place such as the basement in a multi-dwelling unit, with the final connection to the individual living space being made via alternative means, similar to the curb or pole technologies.
FTTD : This type of fiber means “fiber to the desktop”. This term is used when the fiber optical connection is installed from the main computer room to a terminal or fiber media converter near the user’s desk.
FTTO : FTTO means “fiber to the office”.  We use this term when the fiber connection is installed from the main computer room/core switch to a special mini-switch (called FTTO Switch) located at the user´s workplace or service points.
FTTE / FTTZ: FTTE means “fiber to the telecom enclosure and FTTZ means “fiber to the zone”. This types of fiber are not considered part of the FTTX group of technologies, despite the similarity in name.
FTTF: This fiber means “fiber to the frontpage” and this type of connection are very similar to FTTB. In a fiber to the front yard scenario, each fiber node serves a single subscriber. This allows for multi-gigabit speeds using XG-fast technology. The fiber node may be reverse-powered by the subscriber modem.
FTTdp: FTTdp means “fiber to the distribution point” and  is very similar to FTTC / FTTN types of fiber but is one-step close again moving the end of the fiber to within meters of the boundary of the customers premises in last junction possible junction box known as the “distribution point” this allows for near-gigabit speeds
FTTN / FTTLA: This types of fiber are called “fiber to the node, neighborhood or last amplifier”.  It’s called FTTN or FTTLA when the fiber optic connection is terminated in a street cabinet, possibly miles away from the customer premises, with the final connections being copper. FTTN is often an interim step toward full FTTH (fiber-to-the-home) and is typically used to deliver ‘advanced’ triple-play telecommunications services.
FTTC / FTTK : This fiber means “fiber to the curb, kerb, closet or cabinet” and this connections are very similar to FTTN, but the street cabinet or pole is closer to the user’s premises, typically within 1,000 feet (300 m), within range for high-bandwidth copper technologies such as wired ethernet or IEEE 1901 power line networking and wireless Wi-Fi technology.
To promote consistency, especially when comparing FTTH penetration rates between countries, the three FTTH Councils of Europe, North America, and Asia-Pacific agreed upon definitions for FTTH and FTTB in 2006, with an update in 2009, 2011 and another in 2015. The FTTH Councils do not have formal definitions for FTTC and FTTN.
Fiber is often said to be “future-proof” because the data rate of the connection is usually limited by the terminal equipment rather than the fiber, permitting substantial speed improvements by equipment upgrades before the fiber itself must be upgraded.
Still, the type and length of employed fibers chosen, e.g. multimode vs. single-mode, are critical for applicability for future connections of over 1 Gbit/s.
FTTC (where fiber transitions to copper in a street cabinet) is generally too far from the users for standard ethernet configurations over existing copper cabling. They generally use very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL) at downstream rates of 80 Mbit/s, but this falls extremely quickly over a distance of 100 metres.

Whether OM5 fiber optics is the Next Multimode Standard?

OM5 Multimode fiber optic has arrived, but, what is OM5 Fiber? OM5, previously known as wide band multimode fiber or WB MMF.
The IEC/ISO standards bodies have recently agreed that WBMMF (Wide Band Multimode Fiber) is the nomenclature of OM5. This specifically relates to 50/125 laser-optimized multimode fiber or LOMFF that has been developed for use within the 850nm to 950nm range for either single or multi-wavelength transmission.
The effective modal bandwidth for OM5 fiber has been specified at the lower and upper wavelengths of 4700 at 850nm and 2470 at 953nm respectively.
This decision was made in October 2016 by the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) Subcommittee 25 (SC 25) Interconnection of Information Technology Equipment.
The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) adopted the term OM5 in certain standards it produces. In June 2016, TIA’s TR-42.12 Optical Fibers and Cables Subcommittee approved the ANSI/TIA-492AAAE standard, which specifically relates to WBMMF.
1. OM5 is designed to support at least four low-cost wavelengths in the 850-950 nm range, enabling optimal support of emerging Shortwave Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SWDM) applications that reduce parallel fiber count by at least a factor of four to allow continued use of just two fibers (rather than eight) for transmitting 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s and reduced fiber counts for higher speeds.
2. OM5 cabling supports all legacy applications at least as well as OM4, and is fully compatible with OM3 and OM4 cabling.
3. The OM5 optical and mechanical attributes are compliant with OM4 50/125 μm specifications and include the additional specifications of effective modal bandwidth and attenuation at 953 nm. WB MMF is intended for operation using vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-laser (VCSEL) transceivers across the 846 to 953 nm wavelength range.
4. TIA has specified lime green as the official cable jacket color for OM5.
5. OM5 EMB values are specified at both 850 and 953 nm.
6. There are no transmission standards that specify OM5. Transmission standards typically include only one multimode fiber variant that is selected based on economic, commercial, and technical criteria. Parallel transmission is the default multimode fiber variant for data rates ≥ 40G.
Wideband uses wavelengths to increase each fiber’s capacity by at least a factor of four, which allows at least a fourfold data-rate increase Instead of using four separate fibers to transmit four optical signals, the signals can be sent down one fiber over four separate operating windows.
In a OM5 multimode fiber link, data rate and maximum reach are limited by:
– Fiber cable attenuation (reduced signal strength) and connection loss.
– Chromatic dispersion in the fiber (spreading out of light pulses over time due to different wavelengths traveling at different speeds).
– Modal bandwidth of the fiber.
OM5 is especially life-changing for data centers where space is extremely important. Imagine being able to send the same data that would usually take 32 fiber cores – down just 8 cores.
The signals are spaced 30nm apart effectively making each transmission signal individual. Importantly, Signals can get from A to B with relatively low cross-talk. This means that you will be able to send 4 signals down 1 core at the wavelengths 850nm, 880nm, 910nm and 940nm.
The fiber is also 50 micron, which means all existing OM4 installations can stay in place and you can through patch directly to the new OM5 cable. However, the entire fiber length will have the characteristics of OM4.
It is expected that all new multimode installations will now be OM5. This wideband backbone cable will ensure all future network demands will be easier to meet!