The use of fiber optic patch cables

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Fiber optic patch cables (also is known as optial fiber jumer) are widely used for high speed communication needs and they can be found in routers, fiber patch panels, media converters and even in hubs and switches. Fiber optic patch cables are preferred over normal copper cables because use of fiber optic patch cables result in comparatively lower loss of signal and because they are highly reliable. The military prefers fiber optic patch cables because these cables are hundred percent immune to any electromagnetic interference.
The cost factor effects the choices of many people where the battle between copper cables and fiber optic patch cables are concerned. However, one prominent point to distinguish is that fiber optic patch cables are hundreds of times, if not thousands, faster than regular ones. A cleverly designed and planned out cabling network using fiber optic patch cables could actually end up being less expensive for you.
Also remember the faster the copper cable gets, the more it will cost you. So after all, maybe copper cables might not be as cheap as you think. If you think in terms of networks cost and not just of cabling component costs you might even find that fiber optic patch cables are comparatively cheaper.
If you are looking for quotes for fiber optic patch cabels then you might find thousands of quotes online. But don’t just think about the cost; remember that a cheaper product might end up costing you more in the long run as such a product will likely have a shorter lifetime. Always settle for fiber optic patch cables that come with a good warranty and after service facilites.
Fiber optic patch cables are used in a variety of conditions from local area network to airplanes. Especially with communication industry hiking up the list of importance, fiber optic patch cables have walked hand in hand in the journey, facilitating many a thousand requirements around the globe.
If you by any chance, hope to get in to telecommunications or similar, accquiring thorough knowledge about fiber optic patch cable is a must. To get the basic idea you can get plenty of material online but to get a comprehensive idea about fiber optic patch cables you might need some expert advice and there are probably thousands of detailed books and other material on this subject.
As the professional fiber optic patch cables provider, fiber-mart supply a range of optical patch cord, such as LC fiber cable, ST fiber cable, MTP MPO cable, LC SC patch cord and more. If you would like to purchase our optical patch cables, please contact us.

 

Tips To Clean Fiber Optic Connectors

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Fiber Optic Connectors are susceptible to be damaged which is not immediately obvious to the naked eye. The damage can have significant effects on measurements. Member any degradation of a fiber ferrule or fiber endface, any stray particles or finger oil on the endface, can have a significant effect on connector performance.
Fiber optic connector and connector ferrules have to be completely cleaned to make sure the trouble totally free working of fiber optic systems. As you’ve devote superior money installing a fiber optic, you might want to opt for a world course fiber optic connector cleaner and bnc coaxial connector to help keep it in superior shape.
Well, cleaning fiber optic connector can be done either with the help of a professional service provider or with the help of DIY kits. Below are a couple of time-tested methods.
1. Use Wipes And Solvents
This is probably the most widely used method of cleaning for the fiber optic parts. Cotton, cloth or lens paper is usually used for using this technique. Fabric and/or composite material wipes provide combined mechanical action and absorbency to remove contamination. Wipes should be used with a resilient pad in order avoid potential scratching of the connector end-face. Most solvents can provide good cleaning for the surfaces and tend to leave a slight residue that evaporates after a while.
This method is appropriate for cleaning connectors with exposed ferrules or termini but cannot be used to clean connector end-faces within alignment sleeves. The wipe should be constructed of material that is lint free and non-debris producing during the cleaning process. Please note that dry wipes have been shown to leave a static charge on the end-face of the connector which can thereafter attract particulate contamination. Therefore it is recommended that a static dissipative solvent be used with a dry wipe to eliminate this condition.
If the connector is not clean after the first cleaning, the process can be repeated perhaps with slightly more pressure on the connector to increase the mechanical action and perhaps making several stokes from the damp to dry sections of the cleaning material.
2. Cleaning Through Connector Reels
Optipop and Cletop are the most widely used reel connectors that are used in the industry for proper cleaning solutions. These work on the function of a resilient pad, sliding dust cover as well as a certain mechanism that tends to keep these small parts of the gadget working known as the ratcheting mechanism. The connector is inserted into an Fiber Optic Inspection scopes. This is done to check how clean the connector is.
About Solvents
Solvents used to clean fiber optics should be static-dissipative and residue-free. Many solvents are flammable and/or packaged so that transportation of the solvent is considered a hazardous material increasing cost of shipment and storage of the solvent. However, there are solvents available that are non-flammable and non-hazardous and packaged so that shipping requires no additional fees or paperwork.
Mind:
The methods require technical skill and expertize, it is advisable to trust the best in line professionals for fiber optic cleaning. Professional groups will not only ensure that your connectors are taken good care of, but also will prevent any sort of technical failures due to improper cleaning techniques.

The Typle and Introduction of Fiber Optic Connector

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According to the different transmission, fiber optic connector can be divided into singmode and multimode silicon-based fiber optic cable, and fiber optic cable in plastic transmission medium. According to the connector structure can be divided into FC,SC,ST,LC,D4,DIN,MU and etc. Wherein ST fiber optic connector is commonly used wiring device side, such as Fiber Optic Patch Cords panels, fiber optic module. While SC and MT connectors are typically used for network equipment side. By the shape of the fiber end face, it can be divided into FC,PC(including SPC or UPC) and APC,according to the number of fiber core, it can be divided into  singlecore and multicore (eg MT-RJ).Fiber optic connectors are widely used variety. In actual application process, we generally follow different fiber connector structure to distinguish it. The following are some of the more common optical connector:
FC fiber optic connectors: Strengthening way is to use an external metal sleeve, fastening means for the turnbuckles. Generally adopt ODF side(Mostly used one the patch panel).
ST fiber optic connectors: Commonly used in fiber optic patch panels, rounded shell, fastening means for the turnbuckles.(Commonly used in fiber optic patch panel).
SC fiber optic connectors: Connected with GBIC optical modules connector, its casing is rectangular, fastening means is a latch type using pin plug, do not need to rotate.(Mostly used in Switch Router).
LC fiber optic connectors: Connected with SFP module connector, it uses easy operation made modular jack (RJ) latch mechanism
MT-RJ:Square transceiver fiber optic connectors, one pair of fiber transceiver.
The fiber jumpers from fiberstore use smaller concentricity error and inner diameter high-precision ceramic ferrule,as well provides additional insertion loss and return loss, in order to avoid damage to the transmission optical transceiver device. We use advanced technology and grinding equipment, ensure the grinding fiber center offset, depression and end radius of curvature of ceramic fiber. Our Technical parameters are in line with the required standards. Fiberstore ensure the long-term use of the connector, not only for the joints and back reflection attenuation test, but aslo the use of scratches or blemishes precision interferometer test the joint surface, measurements taken FC, ST, SC, LC and MU-type connector of the radius of curvature, ground offset amount of the optical fiber and the projecting amount of depression, in order to ensure the quality of the joint.

 

SFP 40 km VS. DWDM SFP: Which to Choose?

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Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) is a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver used for both telecommunication and data communications applications. It is also called mini-GBIC for its smaller size, which is the upgraded version of GBIC transceiver. These 1Gb SFP modules are capable of supporting speeds up to 4.25 Gbps. And they are most often used for Fast Ethernet of Gigabit Ethernet applications. It interfaces a network device motherboard (for a switch, router, media converter or similar device) to a fiber optic or copper networking cable. SFP modules are commonly available in several different categories: 1000BASE-T SFP, 1000BASE-EX SFP, 1000BASE-SX SFP, 1000BASE-LX/LH SFP, 1000BASE-BX SFP, 1000BASE-ZX SFP, CWDM SFP and DWDM SFP modules. These modules support different distance according to the different Gigabit Ethernet standard. Today’s main subject will discuss SFP 40 km vs. DWDM SFP.
SFP 40 km
SFP 40 km transceiver is designed for highly reliable fiber optic network links up to 40 km. It is a cost effective transceiver designed to enable 1Gb for data center and core network applications. 1000BASE-EX SFP is the most popular SFP 40 km transceiver which runs on 1310nm wavelength lasers and achieves 40km link length. Except that, 1000BASE-BX BiDi SFP, 1000BASE-LH SFP and 1000BASE-LX SFP can also realize the transmission distance up to 40 km. The following will introduce these 1GbE SFP 40 km transceivers respectively.
1000BASE-EX SFP 40 km
1000BASE-EX SFP transceiver module is designed to connect a Gigabit Ethernet port to a network and has dual LC/PC single mode connectors. It operates on standard single-mode fiber-optic link spans of up to 40 km in length. The SFP Ethernet module provides a dependable and cost-effective way to add, replace or upgrade the ports on switches, routers and other networking equipment. Cisco GLC-EX-SM1550-40 and Cisco GLC-EX-SMD are 1G single mode fiber SFP 40 km modules for 1000BASE-EX Gigabit Ethernet transmission. GLC-EX-SM1550-40 supports a 1550nm wavelength signaling, while GLC-EX-SMD supports a 1310nm wavelength signaling.
1000BASE-BX SFP 40 km
1000BASE-BX SFP is a kind of BiDi transceiver, which can be divided into 1000BASE-BX-D SFP and 1000BASE-BX-U SFP. These two SFP transceivers must be used in pairs to permit a bidirectional Gigabit Ethernet connection using a single strand of single mode fiber (SMF) cable. The 1000BASE-BX-D SFP operates at wavelengths of 1490nm TX/1310nm RX, and the 1000BASE-BX-U SFP operates at wavelengths of 1310nm TX/1490nm RX.
1000BASE-BX-D BiDi SFP 40 km
Cisco GLC-BX40-D-I and GLC-BX40-DA-I are pluggable fiber optical transceivers for Gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-BX and Fiber Channel communications. They support link length of up to 40 km point to point on single mode fiber at 1Gbps bidirectional and use an LC connector. The GLC-BX40-D-I transceiver transmits a 1490nm channel and receives a 1310nm signal, whereas GLC-BX40-DA-I transmits at a 1550nm wavelength and receives a 1310nm signal.
1000BASE-BX-U BiDi SFP 40 km
Similar to 1000BASE-BX-D 40 km SFP , Cisco GLC-BX40-U-I and GLC-BX40-UA-I also support link length of up to 40 km point to point on single mode fiber at 1Gbps bidirectional and use an LC connector. The main difference is the wavelength: GLC-BX40-U-I transmits a 1310nm channel and receives a 1550nm signal, whereas GLC-BX40-UA-I transmits at a 1310nm wavelength and receives a 1490nm signal. A GLC-BX40-D-I or GLC-BX40-DA-I device connects to a GLC-BX40-U-I or GLC-BX40-UA-I device with a single strand of standard SMF with an operating transmission range up to 40 km.
1000BASE-LX SFP 40 km
1000BASE-LX is a standard specified in IEEE 802.3 Clause 38 which uses a long wavelength laser. The “LX” in 1000BASE-LX stands for long wavelength, indicating that this version of Gigabit Ethernet is intended for use with long-wavelength transmissions (1270 – 1355nm) over long cable runs of fiber optic cabling. Allied Telesis AT-SPLX40 and Allied Telesis AT-SPLX40/1550 are 1000BASE-LX SFP single-mode modules supports Gigabit Ethernet over single-mode cables at distances up to 40 km. AT-SPLX40 operates over a wavelength of 1310nm for 40 km, whereas AT-SPLX40/1550 operates over a wavelength of 1550nm.
1000BASE-LH SFP 40 km
Unlike 1000BASE-LX, 1000BASE-LH is just a term widely used by many vendors. Long Haul (LH) denotes longer distances, so 1000BASE-LH SFP modules operate at a distance up to 70 km over single mode fiber. Cisco Linksys MGBLH1 is a easy-to-install modules that provide a simple way to add fiber connectivity or to add an extra Gigabit Ethernet port to switches. The MGE transceiver can support distances up to 40 km over single-mode fiber at a 1310nm wavelength.
DWDM SFP
DWDM SFP transceivers are used as part of a DWDM optical network to provide high-capacity bandwidth across an optical fiber network, which is a high performance, cost effective module for serial optical data communication applications up to 4.25Gb/s. DWDM transceiver uses different wavelengths to multiplex several optical signal onto a single fiber, without requiring any power to operate. There are 32 fixed-wavelength DWDM SFPs that support the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 100-GHz wavelength grid. The DWDM SFP can be also used in DWDM SONET/SDH (with or without FEC), but for longer transmission distance like 200 km links and Ethernet/Fibre Channel protocol traffic for 80 km links. Cisco C61 DWDM-SFP-2877-40 is a 1000BASE-DWDM SFP 40km transceiver, which is designed to support distance up to 40 km over single-mode fiber and operate at a 1528.77nm DWDM wavelength (Channel 61) as specified by the ITU-T.
SFP 40 km VS. DWDM SFP
Transmission Medium
Generally, the standard SFP 40 km transceivers transmit through the single mode fiber, while DWDM SFP carries signals onto a single optical fiber to achieve maximum distances by using different wavelengths of laser light. So the DWDM SFP transceivers do not require any power to operate.
Wavelength
The standard SFP 40 km transceivers support distances up to 40 km over single-mode fiber at a 1310nm/1550nm wavelength. (the BiDi SFP has 1490nm/1550nm TX & 1310nm RX or 1310nm TX & 1490nm/1550nm RX ). However, DWDM SFP operates at a nominal DWDM wavelength from 1528.38 to 1563.86nm onto a single-mode fiber. Among them, 40 km DWDM SFP operates at a 1528.77nm DWDM wavelength (Channel 61).
Application
DWDM SFP is used in DWDM SONET/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet and Fibre Channel applications. These modules support operation at 100Ghz channel. The actual SFP transceiver offers a transparent optical data transmission of different protocols via single mode fiber. And for back-to-back connectivity, a 5-dB inline optical attenuator should be inserted between the fiber optic cable and the receiving port on the SFP at each end of the link.
Price
DWDM provides ultimate scalability and reach for fiber networks. Boosted by Erbium Doped-Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs)  – a sort of performance enhancer for high-speed communications, DWDM systems can work over thousands of kilometers. Most commonly, DWDM SFP is much more expensive than the standard SFP. You can see the price more clearly in the following cable.

 

High Density Fiber Patch Cables For Using In Data Center

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Data center fiber optical transmission system requirements on the bandwidth shows high growth trend, while the use of a new generation of fiber optic and fiber optical module can continue to explore the potential of optical network bandwidth. Since multi-mode fiber has lower overall cost of active and passive, prompting multimode fiber applications have an absolute advantage in the data center. The launch of OM4 new category EIA/TIA492AAAD multimode fiber standard, providing a better transmission way for multi-mode fiber widely used in the future. Multimode fiber from OM1 to OM2, from OM3 cable use VCSEL laser optimization technique to OM4 cable, the bandwidth is progressively enhanced, promoted by a large growth requirements of online media and application in the cloud computing environment, this module is the ideal communication solution for data center, server farms, network switches, telecom switching centers and many other needs high-speed data transmission embedded applications, the system applications include data aggregation, backplane communications, proprietary protocol data transmission and other high-density / high-bandwidth applications.
In the 40G/100G state port device such as QSFP will be directly connected to the MTP/MPO connector, regardless if the fiber channel is connected by several fiber optic cables, or what type of connection of the fiber connected. 40G/100G of equipment and equipment ultimately channel connection need to form a special model, so that the equipment transmitting end and the receiving end of the channel correspond to each other.
MPO / MTP high density fiber pre connection system currently mainly used in three areas: high-density data center environment applications, fiber-to-building applications, inside connection applications between optical splitter, 40G, 100G QSFP SFP+ and other fiber optical transceiver devices. There are a series of high-density parallel optical connectivity products adaptable to modern data center fiber transmission, which are  OM3/OM4 MPO bundle, MPO Loopback and QSFP Jumper.
MPO/MTP Fiber Cable is offered for various applications for all networking and device needs like 100 Gigabit modules. It uses a high-density multi-fiber connector system built around precision molded MT ferrule. MPO/MTP fiber cable is available in UPC and APC finishes, and support both multimode and single mode applications. Work with both VCSEL laser and LED sources, 10G OM3 OM4 MPO/MTP Cable provide 10 gigabit data transfer speeds in high bandwidth applications and they are 5 times faster than standard 50um fiber cable. Multimode MPO/MTP Cable is the cable of choice for most common local fiber systems as the devices for multimode are far cheaper. Single-mode MPO/MTP Cable is primarily used for applications involving extensive distances. The MPO/MTP Trunk cable is designs for Data Center Applications.
The single-mode and multimode MPO/MTP cables are round cables with the outer diameter of 3.0 mm or 4.5 mm. The connector the cable is terminated on is so called MPO/MTP connector.
With server virtualization and cloud computing development and the trend of network integration, bringing greater demand of faster and more efficiently data center networks. Currently 10G switch is consist of 48 10G channels per line card, mainly limited by the SFP+ module form factor. To meet the higher bandwidth requirements, customers can use the higher-density QSFP+ ports developed by QSFP+ Jumper, and by increasing the per-channel rate and increasing port density to achieve customers’ high bandwidth requirements.

Introduction of the Transients in Optical WDM Networks

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A systems analysis continues to be completed to consider dynamical transient effects in the physical layer of an Optical WDM Network. The physical layer dynamics include effects on different time scales. Dynamics from the transmission signal impulses possess a scale of picoseconds. The timing recovery loops in the receivers be employed in the nanoseconds time scale. Optical packet switching in the future networks will have microsecond time scale. Growth and development of such optical networks is yet continuing. Most of the advanced development work in optical WDM networks is presently focused on circuit switching networks, where lightpath change events (for example wavelength add/drop or cross-connect configuration changes) happen on the time scale of seconds.
It is focused on the dynamics from the average transmission power associated with the gain dynamics in Optical Line Amplifiers (OLA). These dynamics may be triggered by the circuit switching events and have millisecond time scale primarily defined by the Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) kinetics in Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs). The transmission power dynamics will also be influenced by other active components of optical network, for example automatically tunable Optical Attenuators, spectral power equalizers, or other light processing components. When it comes to these dynamics, a typical power of the lightpath transmission signal is recognized as. High bandwidth modulation from the signal, which actually consists of separate information carrying pulses, is mostly ignored.
Ring WDM networks implementing communication between two fixed points are very well established technology, in particular, for carrying SONET over the WDM. Such simple networks with fixed WDM lighpaths happen to be analyzed in many detail. Fairly detailed first principle models for transmission power dynamics exist for such networks. These models are implemented in industrial software allowing engineering design calculations and dynamical simulation of these networks. Such models could possibly have very high fidelity, but their setup, tuning (model parameter identification) and exhaustive simulations covering a variety of transmission regimes are potentially very labor intensive. Adding description of new network components to such model could need a major effort.
The problems with detailed first principle models is going to be greatly exacerbated for future Mesh WDM networks. The near future core optical networks will be transparent to wavelength signals on a physical layer. In such network, each wavelength signal travels through the optical core between electronic IP routers around the optical network edge using the information contents unchanged. The signal power is attenuated in the passive network elements and boosted by the optical amplifiers. The lightpaths is going to be dynamically provisioned by Optical Cross-Connects (OXCs), routers, or switches independently on the underlying protocol for data transmission. Such network is basically a circuit switched network. It might experience complex transient processes of the average transmission power for every wavelength signal at the event of the lightpath add, drop, or re-routing. A mix of the signal propagation delay and channel cross-coupling might result in the transmission power disturbances propagating across the network in closed loops and causing stamina oscillations. Such oscillations were observed experimentally. Additionally, the transmission power and amplifier gain transients could be excited by changes in the average signal power because of the network traffic burstliness. If for some period of time the wavelength channel bandwidth is not fully utilized, this could result in a loss of the average power (average temporal density of the transmitted information pulses).
First circuit switched optical networks are already being designed and deployed. Fraxel treatments develops rapidly for metro area and long term networks. Engineering design of circuit switched networks is complicated because performance has to be guaranteed for all possible combinations of the lightpaths. Further, as such networks develop and grow, they potentially need to combine heterogenous equipment from a variety of vendors. A system integrator (e.g., fiber-mart) of such network might be different from subsystems or component manufacturer. This creates a necessity of developing adequate means of transmission power dynamics calculations which are suitable for the circuit switched network business. Ideally, these methods should be modular, independent on the network complexity, and use specifications on the component/subsystem level.
fiber-mart has technical approach to systems analysis that’s to linearize the nonlinear system around a fixed regime, describe the nonlinearity like a model uncertainty, and apply robust analysis that guarantees stability and gratifaction conditions within the presence of the uncertainty. For a user of the approach, there is no need to understand the derivation and system analysis technicalities. The obtained results are very simple and relate performance to basic specifications of the network components. These specifications are somewhat not the same as those widely used in the industry, but could be defined from simple experimentation using the components and subsystems. The obtained specification requirements may be used in growth and development of optical amplifiers, equalizers, optical attenuators, other transmission signal conditioning devices, OADMs, OXCs, and any other optical network devices and subsystems influencing the transmission power.

Optical Amplifier Used in CATV Transmission Network

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CATV technology has matured steadily over the past several years, and has expanded into diverse applications. However, as the quick expansion in technology and services, it’s important to improve CATV network component performance for higher visual and audio signals transmission. Optical amplifier for CATV application is the key element in such transmission. This post intends to give a clear introduction of optical CATV amplifier and its application in CATV transmission.
Introduction to CATV Amplifier
CATV amplifier is also a type of EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) amplifier which is the most popular optical amplifier in optical network communications. It is mainly used to amplify damped TV signals (compensation for loss) for improved signal quality before sending them to each subscriber. Moreover, CATV amplifiers not only amplify the signal, but also amplify the noise on the line, and bring some return loss. That’s why a quality CATV amplifier price is a little high, because it can provide better performance for the whole network transmission.
Why CATV Amplifier Is Needed?
As we all know, CATV network is a multi-channel TV system to transmit high quality video and sound signal from a large number of digital or analog broadcast television and radio channel via fiber optic cable or coaxial cable. CATV amplifier often acts as booster optical amplifier in this system to get satisfying transmission effect. The following picture illustrates a basic long haul CATV transmission system using EDFA amplifier.
In most cases, the satellite providers deliver high quality digital video and audio to users’ home depending on the users’ equipment. However, the signal incoming cable feed is connected to more than one equipment with use of optical splitters. And if the incoming signal gets fragmented and rerouted, the overall speed and quality will be worse. Under this condition, an optical amplifier can be used to boost the signal power and help users get better services.
CATV Amplifier in Long-Haul CATV Transmission System
As have mentioned above, a basic long-haul CATV communication link consists of head end, transmitter, receiver, optical amplifier, and sometimes fiber splitter is also needed in this type of transmission network. The head end receives TV signals off the air or from satellite feeds, and supplies them to the transmission system. The optical splitters are often utilized in a poin-to-multipoint configuration. Here are two CATV fiber network cases using CATV booster amplifier.
Case one
This is a point-to-multipoint medium size private CATV network. In the head end, the transmitter receives signals from the RF combiner on the 1310nm or 1550nm wavelength. Then the signals split into several parts and are received by the CATV receiver. Finally, all the signals are amplified by the CATV amplifier and sent to the subscriber.
Case two
In the above application case, the optical amplifier lies behind the CATV receiver, but in this case, it’s a little different.
As we can see from the graph, the CATV amplifier lies in the front of the receiver to boost the transmission distance longer. Except for that, this transmission network also deploys two DWDM Mux/Demux to multiply the eight different wavelengths into one fiber for better transmitting. Please note that this graph just illustrates part of the long-haul CATV system.