What Is Fiber Optic Adapter

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Fiber optic adapters (also known as fiber optic flanges, mating sleeves and couplers), are fiber optic active components. Optical fiber adapters are the most useful optical passive devices in optical fiber communication systems. The fiber optic adapter plays the role of aligning the sleeve. In addition, the fiber optic coupler is usually equipped with metal or non-metal flanges to facilitate the installation and fixation of the connector.Both ends of the fiber adapter connect with fiber connectors of different interface types to achieve conversion between different interfaces such as FC, SC, ST, LC, MTRJ, MPO, and E2000. It is widely used in optical fiber distribution frames (ODF), optical fiber communication equipment, Instruments, etc..

Features of Fiber Optic Adapter

1. Passed 100% optical performance test, ceramic (zirconia) casing, processed with imported high-precision machine tool, high product finish, precise axis positioning, to ensure the coaxiality of the product and the accuracy factor of concentricity;

2. The unique design of the integrated internal structure, the structure is simpler, easier to use, easy to assemble, and improve efficiency;

3. Good stability performance, small insertion loss in continuous insertion test.

Classification of fiber optic adapters

There are various forms of fiber optic adapters. The adapters commonly used in EPON networks are APC adapters.

According to the different application scope and requirements of the fiber optic adapter, in order to fix it on various panels, the fiber optic adapter is also designed with a variety of fine fixing flanges. The fiber adapter can connect different types of fiber jumper interfaces. Duplex and multi cores adapters can increase the installation density. According to the difference in appearance structure and docking section, fiber adapters can be roughly divided into the following common models: FC, SC, ST, LC, FC-SC, FC-ST, ST-SC, in addition to some male to female hybird fiber optic adapter.

The external reinforcement method of FC fiber adapter is a metal body with screw buckle fastening method. FC fiber adapter adopts butt end with ceramic pins. This type of adapter is simple in structure, easy to operate, and easy to manufacture. However, the fiber end is more sensitive to fine dust, and Fresnel reflection is easy to occur. It is difficult to improve the return loss performance. Later, this type of adapter was improved, using a spherical pin (PC) with a mating end face, and the external structure was not changed, which made the insertion loss and return loss performance greatly improved.

The body of the SC fiber adapter is rectangular, and the structural dimensions of the pin and coupling sleeve used are exactly the same as the FC type. Among them, the interfaces of the adapter pins are mostly UPC or APC type grinding method. The tightening method of SC adapter is a plug-in pin bolt type, without rotating. The adapter is equipped with metal shrapnel, which is convenient for concealed installation. The SC adapter is inexpensive and easy to install and operate. The insertion loss fluctuation is small, and the compressive strength is high, which is suitable for high-density installation.

ST fiber optic adapter is a snap-on locking structure with key to ensure accurate alignment during connection and has strong tensile strength. Metal key positioning improves the repeatability and durability of the adapter. ST fiber adpter adopts precision ceramic or copper sleeves to ensure long-term stable mechanical properties and optical properties. Designed in rectangular structure, tapping riveting is easy to install.

The LC fiber adapter is made with a modular jack (RJ) latch mechanism that is easy to operate. LC fiber adapter adopts small size pins and sleeves which can increase the density of fiber connectors in the fiber distribution frame. And with adopts precision ceramic sleeve, long-term stable mechanical and optical performance can be ensured.

MT-RJ started with the MT adapter developed by NTT, with the same latch mechanism as the RJ-45 type LAN electrical adapter. The MT-RJ fiber adapter is aligned with the fiber through guide pins installed on both sides of the small sleeve. In order to facilitate connection with the optical transceiver, the fiber at the end of the adapter is arranged in a dual-core (interval 0.75MM) arrangement. MT-RJ fiber optic adapter is mainly used for next-generation high-density fiber optic connector of data transmission.

The important role of fiber optic adapters

Fiber optic adapters are components that play a key role in connecting optical fibers. There are multiple input ports and output ports of different models on fiber optical patch panel, no matter what type of optical fiber lines and equipment can be easily connected. The fiber optic adapter also has a function of establishing a signal branch. There are several outlets on the fiber optic patch panel, and each outlet can establish a branch line.

The application range of fiber optic adapters is very wide. First of all, it has an indispensable role in the fiber optic communication network. Our current network signals are all made of optical fiber, so the optical fiber has almost been drawn to thousands of households. Then there is the cable TV network. Some TV signals are also transmitted by optical fiber. In such a cable TV network, a signal source such as a voltage controlled oscillator is first used to generate electrical signals, which are then converted into optical signals by photoelectric elements. It can be transmitted by optical fiber, and the optical fiber adapter in this optical fiber TV signal network also has a very wide range of uses. In addition, optical fiber can also be used to build some local area networks for internal use by some units, and can also establish data connections between some electronic devices. These are also inseparable from optical fiber adapters. It can be seen that the role of fiber optic adapters in fiber optic communication networks is just as essential as the role of power connectors in circuits.

The Introduction of MPO/MTP Optic Fiber Patch Panel

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

With the rapid development of the network, the 40G network has now become so popular, and the 100G network is also widely used. Nowadays, the traditional fiber optical LC connection can no longer meet the high speed and high density requirements of the data center. In this case, it becomes very important to obtain a higher transmission rate and find a suitable solution for high-density wiring. However, the emergence of MTP/MPO connection standards and MTP/MPO related products is indeed a good news for high-density cabling. It can replace 12 or 24 LC connectors at the same time. Therefore, it is the perfect solution for high-performance data transmission.

The MPO/MTP patch panel occupies a dominant position in the high-density wiring environment. As a high-density pre-terminated fiber optic equipment, it has the characteristics of flexible deployment and can not only provide conversion between MTP/MPO connectors and LC or SC connectors and help high-density networks to achieve rapid deployment, but also reduce the installation time and cost of optical networks. In addition, MTP/MPO distribution box is often used for MDA (main distribution area), IDC (Internet data center) or EDA (equipment distribution area) distribution area fiber backbone connection and fiber cabling management, MTP/MPO optic fiber distribution box can also be installed in a rack-mounted or wall-mounted cabinet to achieve capacity expansion.

The Characteristic Of MPO/MTP Patch Panel

1. It is usually installed in 19-inch racks and cabinets for centralized management of module boxes.

2. It can increase the number of ports through MPO/MTP modular design and provide high-density fiber connection.

3. MPO/MTP 1U fiber distribution box can be installed with MPO/MTP cassette modules, the MPO/MTP cassettes is installed with duplex LC adapters, the maximum number of fiber cores can be managed up to 96 cores.

4. MPO/MTP 2U fiber distribution box can be installed with 8 MPO/MTP pre-terminated cassettes, the MPO/MTP module box can be installed with duplex LC adapter to manage the maximum number of fiber cores up to 192 cores, and the MPO/MTP cassettes can be installed with simplex SC adapter to manage the maximum number of fiber cores up to 96 cores.

5. MPO/MTP 4U fiber distribution box can be install with 12 MPO/MTP pre-termination cassettes. The LC adapter can be installed in the PO/MTP cassettes to manage the maximum number of fiber cores up to 288 cores, and the simplex SC adapter in the PO/MTP cassettes can manage the maximum number of fiber cores up to 144 cores.

6. The design of optical fiber MPO/MTP patch panel includes cable manager and labeling strip.

7. It has the advantages of convenient installation and cable management.

8. Compare with the traditional fiber optical patch panel, the density of MPO/MTP fiber optic box is more than four times, which greatly saves the space of the cabinet, improves the utilization rate of the cabinet, and creates value for the construction of the data center.

The Application of MPO/MTP Pre-terminated Patch Panel

The MPO/MTP pre-terminated fiber optic patch panel is the end point of a backbone optical cable, which is equivalent to a device that breakout an optical cable into a single optical fiber. Its function is to provide MPO/MTP trunk jumpers and MPO/MTP adapter pre-connected, MPO/MTP to LC/SC jumper and LC/SC adapter connection. It provides mechanical protection and environmental protection for optical fibers and their components, and allows appropriate inspections to maintain high standards of optical fiber management.

fiber-mart.com provides customized high-quality optical fiber Patch Panels, MPO/MTP Distribution box and other fiber optical products according to customer needs. With more than 10 yeas developement, UniteFiber supplies high-density optical fiber products, PLC optical splitters, WDM wavelength division multiplexers, optical switches and other products, which are widely used in FTTx, telecommunications, 5G networks, data centers and other fields.

How to Judge Whether the Fiber Optic Media Converter has Quality Problem?

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Key words: Fiber optical media converter, industrial media converter, optical transceiver module, fiber optical cables, fiber optical jumpers

In general, the optical power of fiber media converter or optical modules is as following: multi-mode is between -10db ~ -18db; single-mode 20 kilometers is between -8db ~ -15db; and single-mode 60 kilometers is between -5db ~ -12db between. But if the optical power of the fiber media converter is between -30db ~ -45db, then it seems that there is a quality problem with the fiber optic transceiver. So, how to judge whether there is a quality problem with the fiber media converter?

First, check whether the indicator light of the optical fibermedia converter and opticaltransceivermodule and the indicator light of the twisted pair port are on

a. If the optical port (FX) indicator light of the optical media converter is off, please make sure whether the optical fiber link is cross-linked? One end of the fiber jumper is connected in parallel; the other end is connected in cross mode.

b. If the optical port (FX) indicator light of the fiber A media converter is on and the optical port (FX) indicator light of the B fiber media converter is off, the fault is at the A fiber media converter. A possibility is that the optical transmitting port of the A fiber media converter (TX) is broken because the optical port (RX) of the B fiber media converter cannot receive optical signals; another possibility is that the optical fiber link of the optical transmitting port of the A fiber media converter (TX) has a problem (optical cable or fiber jumper may be broken)

c. If the Twisted Pair (TP) indicator light is off. Please make sure whether the twisted pair connecting line is wrong or the connection is wrong? Please use a continuity tester to test (but the twisted-pair indicator light of some fiber media converter will only turn on after the fiber link is connected).

d. Some fiber media converter have two RJ45 ports: (ToHUB) indicates that the cable connecting the switch is a straight-through line; (ToNode) indicates that the cable connecting the switch is a crossover line.

e. There is an MPR optical switch on the side of some fiber media converters which means that the connection line to the switch is a straight-through line. And the DTE optical switch is means that the connection line to the switch is a crossover line.

Whether the fiber optic cable and fiber jumper are broken

a. Fiber optical cable broken test: using a fiber optical laser tester to test one end of the optical cable connector or coupler, and watching if there is visible light at the other end. If there is visible light, it indicates that the optical cable is not broken.

b. Optical fiber jumper broken test: using a Visual Fault Locator test one end of the fiber jumper, and watching if there is visible light at the other end. If there is visible light, it indicates that the fiber jumper is not broken.

Is the half/full duplex mode wrong?

There is an FDX optical switch on the side of some media converters. It means full duplex; HDX optical switch means half duplex.

4. Detect with optical power meter

The optical power of the optical fiber media converter or optical tranceiver module under normal conditions is between -10db ~ -18db for multimode; between -8db ~ -15db for single mode 20 km; between -5db ~ -12db for single mode 60 km. If the optical power of the fiber media converter is between -30db ~ 45db, then it can be judged that the fiber media converter is with quality problem.

The above is the relevant introduction on how to judge whether there is a problem on optical fiber media converter. As the optical fiber market continues to mature, the application field of optical fiber becomes more and more extensive. With the widespread use of optical fiber, it is natural that there will be failures. But as long as we find out the cause and solve it accordingly! 

High-density Cabling Solution-mpo Fiber Optic Connectors And Jumpers

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Key words: MPO trunk cables, MTP jumper, MPO/MTP adapter, MPO/MTP patch panel

With the widespread deployment of data centers, the demand for 400G solutions is growing. The rapid increase in the number of network links will result in the data center space of traditional optical fiber cabling being cramped and difficult to manage. The application of MPO optical fiber connector/optical fiber jumper is based on this demand, which can accommodate the optical cable connection of high-speed and large-capacity optical communication system to meet the 400G high-speed transmission demand.

MPO (Multi Push On) is a type of multi-core optical fiber connector. Usually 12-core optical fiber is arranged in a row. It can support one or more rows of optical fibers in the same MPO connector. According to the number of cores discharged in the connector, it is divided into one row (12 cores) and multiple rows (24 cores or more) .The size of the MPO connector is the same as that of the SC connector, but the density is increased several times, which greatly saves the space occupied by the line ports and cables, so as to achieve higher density cabling in a certain space. Great flexibility and scalability also make cabling deployment easier and more adaptable to the needs of future network upgrades, expansions and changes. It has been widely used in optical fiber communication networks, high-density data centers, transmission systems and CATV networks, and more and more applications in active optical cable assemblies, such as AOC, QSFP, etc.

fiber-mart.com also designed high-density MPO/MTP patch panels, fiber optical distribution boxes, and rack chassis to installed with MPO trunk cables. The MPO trunk cable is with push-pull rod designed. In high-density and small environments, it is very inconvenient to operate, especially for jumpers in these intermediate spaces. The push-pull rod design of MPO patch cord can solves this problem.

What are Features and Applications of Multimode Fiber Cables?

The data center has become the engine of modern life, and the growing network information is transmitted and stored at high speed through the data center. Most of the connection distances inside the data center are short, ranging from a few meters to a few hundred meters. In these short-distance high-speed data communications, multimode optical fibers and optical modules with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) as the core components have been widely used. Compared with the single-mode transmission scheme, the multi-mode scheme uses a low-cost, low-power laser to achieve fast and efficient coupling between the fiber and the laser. Multi-mode fiber can achieve higher transmission rate or longer transmission distance than copper cable, and lower cost than single-mode fiber system.At present, the internal connection rate of the data center has reached 100 Gbit/s, and 400 Gbit/s is just around the corner. The industry has been developing new types of multimode optical fibers to improve its performance, including broadband multimode optical fiber technology that realizes wavelength division multiplexing in a single optical fiber; and long-wave multimode optical fiber that supports longer transmission distances. In addition, in order to support high-density, miniaturized connections, and improve data center space utilization, heat dissipation efficiency, and cable management efficiency, multimode optical fibers with bending resistance have also been rapidly developed and deployed. This article will combine the technical principles of multimode fiber and the evolution of optical module technology to discuss the development trend of multimode fiber supporting high-speed optical transceivers.

1. The Features and Applications of Multimode Fiber Cables

The development of cloud computing has promoted the development of ultra-large-scale data centers, resulting in a development trend different from traditional enterprise data centers. Whether it is domestic or international, the evolution of server port rates for ultra-large-scale data center users based on cloud computing services is significantly faster than that of traditional enterprise data centers. Traditional enterprises will stably use OM4 Multimode Fiber Cables, and more than 90% of the system link length is less than 100m.

However, ultra-large-scale data center users choose more singlemode fiber cables, and 70% of the system link length exceeds 100m.

The development of ultra-large-scale data centers has increased the utilization rate of single mode fiber cable, but multimode fiber cable still has its unique advantages. These advantages are that the use of lower-cost optical transceiver modules, lower power consumption, and the transmission distance can cover most of the links in the data center, so solutions based on Multimode Fiber Cables and multimode optical modules are still very attractive to customers.

2. The Bandwidth of 850nm Multimode Fiber Cable

Unlike the single mode fiber optic system, the transmission distance and speed of the multimode fiber optic system are limited by the bandwidth of the multimode fiber cables. In order to support the higher transmission distance of the high-speed system, the mode bandwidth of the multimode fiber cable needs to be increased. The design of multimode fiber cable usually adopts a-profile of graded index to reduce the mode group delay and achieve high bandwidth.

Among them, rO is the core radius, ∆0 is the maximum value of the relative refractive index change of the core, which can be expressed as follows.

Among them, nO is the central refractive index of the core and n1 is the refractive index of the cladding.

Choosing an appropriate value of a, the mode bandwidth of the multimode fiber optic cables can be optimized within a certain wavelength range. Figure 3 shows the bandwidth distribution of a 50 µm multimode fiber cable when there’s 1% change in the a value of the 850 nm wavelength.  When the a value of the fiber is at the optimal position, the bandwidth exceeds 13 GHz. km. The figure also reflects that the bandwidth of a multimode fiber cable is very sensitive to the A value. To achieve the maximum bandwidth, A value (core refractive index) needs to be very finely controlled, otherwise various defects in the core profile during the manufacturing process will affect the actual bandwidth of the multimode fiber optic cable.

With the advancement of optical fiber cable design and manufacturing technology, the bandwidth of multimode optical fiber cable has been greatly improved. Table 1 shows different types of standard multi-mode fiber cables. The 62.5 µm multimode fiber optic cable has a higher numerical aperture and a larger core, which can couple the light-emitting diode light source (LED) into the fiber, and supports 2 km at a rate of 10 Mbit/s or even 100 Mbit/s. data transmission. With the development of Ethernet standards and low-cost 850 nm VCSELs, multimode fiber cables with a core diameter of 50µm are more popular in the market. The fiber has lower modal dispersion and higher bandwidth, and the spot size and numerical aperture of the VCSEL is smaller than that of the LED, and the laser can be easily coupled into the 50 µm fiber. By optimizing the fiber manufacturing process and adopting advanced refractive index control technology, the 50 µm multimode fiber cable has developed from OM2 (500 MHz. km) to OM3 (2 000 MHz. km), and now it has developed to OM4 (4 700 MHz. km). ).

For the multimode fiber system using 850 nm VCSEL, further increasing the bandwidth of the OM4 multimode fiber optic cable will not enable the optical module to transmit longer distances, because the system bandwidth depends on the effective mode bandwidth and dispersion of the fiber optic cables (related to the line width of the VCSEL laser and the fiber wavelength). If the system bandwidth needs to be increased, in addition to the effective mode bandwidth of the optical fiber cable, the dispersion value needs to be optimized. Partial dispersion can be compensated by differential mode delay (DMD) multimode fiber optic cable, or 850 nm VCSEL with a narrower line width or working in the long-wave region with lower dispersion

What Are the Differences Between Industrial Switches and Commercial Switches?

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Nowadays, with the development of network technology, many friends who need to use the network will use the switch, which can realize the common use of multiple computers in a network. Nowadays, commonly used switches are mainly divided into  commercial network switches and industrial Ethernet switches. In order to meet the flexible and changeable industrial environment and anti-interference aspects, there is a particularly large gap between industrial switches and commercial switches. In contrast, the functions of industrial switches are more practical. So, what are the differences and advantages of industrial Ethernet switches compared with commercial network switches? Today, UnitekFiber will share with you some information about them.

There is no essential difference between industrial switches and commercial switches in terms of data link layer, network layer, protocol layer, etc., but for the real-time requirements of industrial control, industrial Ethernet switches solve the real-time communication, network security, and intrinsic safety. Technical issues such as safety and explosion-proof technology, and adopt some measures suitable for industrial environment, such as waterproof, anti-vibration and so on.

1. The differences in appearance between industrial switch and commercial switch

Industrial switche generally use a fanless enclosure fan mode, and basically use a metal enclosure, which has higher strength. commercial switche generally use a plastic enclosure with higher strength and use a fan cooling mode.

2. The differences in application environment between industrial switch and commercial switch

Industrial switches can adapt to a low temperature of 40°C to 85°C, and have excellent dust and humidity resistance. The protection level is above IP40. The scope of application is more common, and it can be installed and used under any dangerous conditions. Generally speaking, the operating temperature of ordinary switches is between 0°C and 50°C, and they have basically no dust and moisture resistance, poor protection level, and have POE power management functions.

3. The seivice life is different between industrial switch and commercial switch

The service life of industrial switch is generally more than 10 years, while the service life of commercial switches is only 3 to 5 years. The difference in service life is related to the maintenance of the middle of the project. Therefore, generally speaking, it is in parks and office buildings. For video transmission in network surveillance environments such as parking lots and those environments where high-definition video output is required, industrial switches or switches whose performance needs to be comparable to those of industrial grade should be used.

The operating voltage of industrial switches is different from that of commerical switches. Industrial switches can be limited to DC24V, DC110V, Marvel/AC220V, while commerical switches can only work under AC220V voltage, and industrial switches are mostly in ring network mode. Reduce line use and maintenance costs.

Conclusion: Whether in terms of components, mechanical environment, climate environment or electromagnetic environment, working voltage, power supply design, installation method, and heat dissipation method, the performance of industrial Ethernet switches is better than that of commerical switches. However, when we purchase the switch, you must consider the working environment and other aspects in detail. In short, if your industrial control site environment is very harsh, then you must use industrial grade Switch, if the environmental requirements are not high, you can choose commercial ordinary switches.

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