La forma correcta de instalar y probar los cables de fibra óptica

 En la industria de las telecomunicaciones hoy en día, cómo instalar la fibra óptica que todo ingeniero óptico debe aprender en su trabajo. No se olvide, cuando instale la fibra óptica, tendrá que probar su sistema de fibra óptica. Las pruebas de fibra óptica son uno de los procedimientos finales y muchos más importantes en la instalación de redes ópticas.

¿Cómo configurar el cable de fibra óptica?

El cable de fibra óptica se puede instalar en interiores o exteriores mediante varios procesos de instalación diferentes. El cable exterior puede estar enterrado directamente, tirado o soplado en un conducto o interdicto, o instalado de forma aérea entre postes. Los cables de interior pueden instalarse en conductos, bandejas de cables, colocarse en perchas, colocarse en conductos o interdictos o soplarse a través de conductos especiales con gas comprimido. El proceso del teléfono celular dependerá de la naturaleza de la instalación y también del tipo de cable que se utilice. Los métodos de instalación para cables de comunicaciones de fibra óptica y de alambre son similares. El cable de fibra está diseñado para ser tirado con mucha más fuerza que el cable de cobre si se tira correctamente, pero el exceso de tensión puede dañar las fibras y causar eventuales fallas.

Las puntas de instalación del cable de fibra óptica:

a) Siga las recomendaciones del fabricante del cable. El cable de fibra óptica a menudo se diseña a medida para esa instalación y el fabricante puede tener instrucciones específicas sobre su instalación.

b) Verifique la longitud del cable para asegurarse de que el cable que se está tirando sea lo suficientemente largo para evitar la necesidad de empalmar fibra y brindar protección especial para los empalmes.

c) Intente completar la instalación de un solo tirón. Justo antes de cualquier instalación, evalúe la ruta cuidadosamente para buscar las formas de instalación y los obstáculos que puedan encontrarse.

Prueba de los pasos de cables de fibra óptica:

Después de la instalación, pruebe cada fibra en la mayoría de los cables de fibra óptica para verificar que la instalación sea adecuada. Realice las siguientes pruebas:

a) Pruebas de continuidad para comprobar que el enrutamiento y / o la polarización de la fibra son correctos y la documentación adecuada.

b) Pérdida de inserción de extremo a extremo utilizando un medidor de potencia OLTS y una fuente. Pruebe cables multimodo utilizando TIA / EIA 526-14 Método B, y cables monomodo utilizando TIA / EIA 526-7 (monomodo). La pérdida total estará por debajo de la pérdida máxima calculada para el cable según los estándares apropiados o las especificaciones del cliente.

c) Se pueden utilizar pruebas OTDR opcionales para verificar la instalación del cable y el rendimiento del empalme. Sin embargo, las pruebas OTDR no estarán acostumbradas a determinar la pérdida de cable.

d) Si la documentación de diseño no incluye la longitud de la planta de cable, que no se registra durante la instalación, pruebe la longitud de la fibra utilizando la función de longitud en un OTDR o algunos OLTS.

e) Si las pruebas muestran variaciones de las pérdidas esperadas, solucione los problemas y corríjalos.

fiber-mart.com es realmente un fabricante profesional de cables de fibra óptica de una amplia gama de soluciones de conectividad y cableado de comunicación de datos de cobre y fibra óptica principalmente para ese mercado empresarial, que ofrece un conjunto integrado de productos garantizados de alta calidad que funcionan como una solución de sistema para Integración perfecta con las ofertas de otros proveedores. Ofrecemos algunos productos de fibra óptica que incluyen cable de fibra óptica simplex, cable de fibra 10G, cable de conexión de fibra, módulo transceptor de fibra óptica, etc.

Algunas preguntas sobre el cable de fibra óptica

 ¿Qué es el cable de fibra óptica?

Un cable de fibra óptica es en realidad un cable de red que contiene hebras de fibra de vidrio en una carcasa aislada. Estos cables están equipados para comunicaciones de red de larga distancia y muy alto ancho de banda (velocidad de gigabit). Si desea obtener más información sobre las especificaciones del cable de fibra óptica, puede visitar el “Tutorial de cable de fibra óptica” de Fiber-mart.com dentro de nuestro tutorial.

Hay un par de tipos de cables de fibra óptica, ¿monomodo VS multimodo?

La fibra monomodo le proporciona una mayor velocidad de transmisión y hasta 50 veces más distancia que la multimodo, es más cara. La fibra monomodo incluye un núcleo más pequeño que la fibra multimodo, por lo general de cinco a diez micrones. Solo se puede transmitir una sola onda de luz a la vez. El núcleo pequeño y la onda de luz única eliminan virtualmente cualquier distorsión que pueda derivarse de pulsos de luz superpuestos, proporcionando la menor atenuación de señal y también las velocidades de transmisión más altas asociadas con un tipo de cable de fibra.

Desde datos y voz hasta seguridad y videoconferencias, muchos de los servicios de infraestructura de TI actuales dependen de la fibra óptica para transmitir información más rápido, más lejos y en mayor cantidad que en el pasado. Así que la fibra óptica es cada vez más popular en Internet. Esta publicación intentará responder a algunas de las preguntas sobre el cable de fibra óptica.

La fibra multimodo le brinda un gran ancho de banda a altas velocidades en largas distancias. Las ondas de luz se dispersan en numerosos caminos, o modos, porque viajan a través del núcleo del cable. Los diámetros típicos del núcleo de fibra multimodo son 50, 62,5 y 100 micrómetros. Sin embargo, en tramos de cable largos (más de 3000 pies (914,4 ml), múltiples trayectos de luz pueden causar distorsión de la señal en el extremo receptor, lo que lleva a una transmisión de datos poco clara e incompleta. Por ejemplo, puede realizar una prueba para verificar el modo dúplex monomodo fibra óptica vs cable de fibra óptica dúplex multimodo, y bien conocemos sus diferentes.

Relación entre el cable de fibra óptica y el cable de conexión de fibra:

Un cable de conexión de fibra es en realidad un cable de fibra óptica cubierto en cada extremo con conectores que lo permiten, de modo que se conecte rápida y convenientemente a CATV, un conmutador óptico u otro equipo de telecomunicaciones. Su gruesa capa de protección se puede utilizar para conectar el transmisor óptico, el receptor y la caja de terminales. Esto se conoce como “cableado de estilo de interconexión”.

Qué tipos de conectores se deben utilizar?

Hay varios estilos de conectores disponibles en el mercado, incluidos LC, FC, MT-RJ, ST y SC. También hay conectores estilo MT / MTP que se adaptan a hasta 12 hilos de fibra y ocupan mucho menos espacio que otros conectores. Este conector está diseñado para usarse con construcciones de cables sin gel de tubo holgado para interiores. Sin embargo, normalmente los conectores más populares son SC, que se empujan hacia adentro y luego hacen clic cuando están sentados, y ST, también conocido como estilo bayoneta, que se empujan hacia adentro y se tuercen para bloquear. Eso debe tenerse en cuenta al crear selecciones de productos.

Qué tipo de chaqueta necesita?

Las cubiertas de cable de fibra están disponibles en muchos estilos. Por ejemplo, la fibra puede ser solo para interiores, solo para exteriores, para interiores / exteriores, táctica y también puede proporcionar clasificaciones Plenum o Riser.

El color de la chaqueta está relativamente estandarizado.

a) Multimodo = Naranja

b) 50 / 125um 10G = Agua

c) Modo único = amarillo

d) Interior / Exterior o Exterior = Negro

e) Los colores de la cubierta personalizados también están disponibles para cables de fibra para interiores.

Ya sea que se encuentre en su entorno residencial o comercial. Fiber-mart.com ofrece una amplia selección de cables de fibra y otros productos relacionados con cables de fibra óptica, como cable de conexión de fibra, conector de fibra óptica, transceptor de fibra. No importa cuán complejas o simples sean sus necesidades de instalación, tenemos la experiencia para ofrecerle los productos y el conocimiento adecuados para sus necesidades de cable de fibra óptica, ensamblaje de fibra óptica personalizado y conector de fibra óptica.

The Invention of Optical Fiber

Light is everywhere, this is not exaggerated. In the early days of human development, humans have begun to use light to transmit information. There are many examples.

Gesturing is a form of visual communication that cannot be performed in the dark. During the day, the sun serves as the light source for this transmission system. The solar radiation carries the information of the sender to the receiver, the movement of the hand modulates the light waves, and the human eye acts as a detector. In addition, beacon towers that existed more than 3,000 years ago can still be regarded as the original form of optical communication. The emergence of the telescope has greatly extended the distance of this type of visual optical communication.

One day in 1870, British physicist Tyndall went to the lecture hall of the Royal Society to talk about the principle of total reflection of light. He did a simple experiment: drill a hole in a wooden bucket filled with water, and then use a lamp to pull Water illuminates. The results surprised the audience. People saw that the shining water flowed out of the small holes in the bucket, the water flow was curved, and the light followed it, and the light was captured by the curved water.

These phenomena attracted Ding Daer’s attention. After his research, he found that this is the effect of total reflection, that is, when the light is incident from the water to the air, when the incident angle is greater than a certain angle, the refracted light disappears, and all the light is reflected back into the water. On the surface, light seems to bend in the current. In fact, in a curved stream of water, light still travels in a straight line, but multiple total reflections occur on the inner surface, and the light propagates forward after multiple total reflections.

Later, people created a kind of glass fiber with high transparency and thickness like spider silk. When the light enters the glass fiber at an appropriate angle, the light advances along the curved glass fiber. Because this fiber can be used to transmit light, it is called an optical fiber.

Why Is the FTTH Cabling System Divided Into Multiple Cable Segments

Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) fiber optic cabling is generally divided into the trunk part, distribution part, the introduction part, and access part from the base station to the user.

In general, the fiber cable link system will be more secure if the fewer fiber cable segments make out from a fiber cable link. So why is the FTTH cable route divided into so many cable segments?

01

If the fiber link from the base station to the user passes through only one fiber cable segment (not counting the jump optical fiber), that is, each user has a direct cable to the board, What is the problem?

There are two main problems here. (1) The number of fiber optic cables connected to the base station is large, and the number of incoming fiber optic cables that can be tolerated by one base station is limited; (2) The distance for laying the fiber optical cable during installation is long, which is not convenient for installation. Limited by the above two aspects, such a base station can only allow dozens of users to access, and of course, there is no application set.

02

In order to solve the above problems, we made 2 improvements.

(1) The fiber optical cable is out of the way with a large-core fiber optical cable, and then the fiber cable splice closure is divided into a plurality of small-core optical cables. It should be noted that if a fiber optic cable has too many branch points, it will affect the life and transmission indicators of the cable.

(2) Set the fiber distribution box at the location where the user is concentrated, as the branch point between the project and the loading. When the user puts the device, it is only necessary to put a small cable from the fiber distribution box to the user.

It is estimated that there are 10 fiber optical cables in one office, 6 to 12 fiber distribution boxes in each optical cable, and 8 users in each fiber distribution box. The number of service users in one office is 480 to 960. At this point, the fiber optic cable line from the office to the user has become two cable segments: Base station – distribution box, distribution box- user. Since the connection relationship of the optical fiber is fixed at the optical cable splice closure, and the attenuation is small, the cable splice closure is generally not used as the starting point of the segment.

Compared with Figure 1, the number of service users in the office has increased several times, but the capacity is still too small. In addition, the user’s development is dynamic. If a location needs to add a fiber distribution box, it needs to be re-laying fiber cables from the base station.

03

As can be seen from the comparison of reducing the number of outgoing optical cables and facilitating the loading, the capacity of the lifting station can be realized by adding branch points on the optical cable. There are two types of fiber optic cable branch points: fiber cable distribution box and fiber optical splice closure.

Through the optical cable distribution, one optical cable can be divided into multiple optical cables, and the number of different branches can be mainly limited by the laying conditions of the optical cable; the connection relationship between the optical cables is flexible. But it will increase the loss of active connections and make core management more difficult.

The number of cables that can be branched through the fiber spice closure is small, generally no more than 6 (1 into 5). There are generally cables left on both sides of the fiber splice box. If there are more cables in a splice closure box, the cable will appear messy and unsightly. Therefore, in general, the number of fiber splice closure to divergent fiber cables will be controlled within 4 (1 into 3).

By adding a fiber cable distribution box , the number of service users in a distribution box is 480 to 960, and the number of service users in one transfer box is 8 to 12, and 6 to 12 fiber feeders are placed in each of the fiber-optic cables.

So how many fiber cable branches can a base station set? With 10 optical cables out of one base station and 3 optical connections per optical cable, 30 optical connections can be set. In this way, the capacity of a base station is about 14400-28800; such a large capacity can basically meet the needs of a large number of field.

The construction of the project will be limited by the construction conditions. For example, if the fiber optical cable network is to cover a residential area, the optical communication is preferably set in the residential area. However, when constructing a backbone optical cable base station, most of the residential properties will not be allowed to be constructed in their communities. When the market department and a certain community negotiated the conditions for engineering construction, the backbone optical cable project has already been completed.

The demand for engineering construction in residential areas, commercial buildings, and other cluster markets in the city are uncertain, and the construction of trunk optical cables must be completed within a certain period of time (generally within 2 to 3 months). In order to solve this contradiction, in the construction of the backbone optical cable, the trunk ONU is placed in a location close to the potential user group, convenient for the cable to be laid, and the installation conditions.

When there are construction conditions in residential quarters, commercial buildings, and other cluster markets, installing distribution ONU and wiring fiber cables from trunk ONU to distribution ONU as shown in Figure 6. Thus, the optical cable line from the base station to the user is divided into the following: the trunk section, the wiring section, the lead-in section, and the home section.

Brief Introduction to Single-mode Fiber Patch Cable

As we all know, fiber optic patch cable plays a vital and significant role to achieve connectivity between optical equipment in telecommunication field. According to different fiber core diameter, there exist two types of fiber patch cords-multimode fiber (MMF) patch cables and single-mode fiber patch cable. In my previous blogs, I have discussed some information about multimode fiber patch cable, including its definition, types and applications. How about single-mode fiber (SMF) patch cable? Do you really know enough about it? Read this article, and you will get a comprehensive understanding of it.

Features of Single-mode Fiber Patch Cable

Single-mode fiber patch cable contains a small core of 9/125 microns which is designed to support only one pathway of light. Instead of simply bouncing the light of the edge of the core, the single-mode patch cable realigns the light toward the center of the core with only a single wavelength of light passing through its core. Like multimode optical cable, single-mode patch cable does exhibit modal dispersion resulting from multiple spatial modes but with narrower modal dispersion. Therefore, single-mode patch cable is better at retaining the fidelity of each light pulse over longer distances than multimode patch cable. Generally, single-mode fiber patch cable is more expensive than multimode patch cable, but it offers better performance and is more cost-efficient in long run transmission. Besides, the color of single-mode fiber patch cable is yellow, while the multimode patch cable is generally orange or aqua. So when you choose a single-mode fiber patch cable, you can easily find the right one from the appearance. Here is a single-mode fiber cable with LC connectors.

Two Single-mode Fiber Patch Cable Types

Like multimode-fiber patch cable with OM1, OM2, OM3 and OM4 types, single-mode fiber patch cable can be categorized into OS1 and OS2. That is, OS1 and OS2 are cabled SMF specifications. OS1 and OS2 are standard single-mode optical cables respectively used with wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1550 nm with a maximum attenuation of 1 dB/km and 0.4 dB/km. Besides these two aspects of differences, the following part will tell the differences between OS1 and OS2 from perspectives of standards and cable construction.

First introduced in the year of 2002, OS1 refers to a very old specification for SMF. The mechanical, optical and environmental characteristics of OS1 are compliant with ITU-T G.652A or ITU-T G.652B standards. Additionally, the low water peak fibers categorized in ITU-T recommendations as G.652C and G.652D also come under OS1 fibers. Thus, OS1 is a general term used to specify single-mode optical cable that comes under the heading of ITU-T G.652. In contrast, OS2 was introduced in 2006. Only ITU-T G.652C and G.652D comes under OS2 fibers which means that OS2 SMF is low water peak fiber only.

Another main differences between OS1 and OS2 SMFs is the cable construction. Typically, OS1 cabling is tight-buffered which is suitable for indoor applications, such as campus or data center, while the OS2 cabling is loose-tubed which is available for outdoor use, like street, underground or burial.

There are many other differences between OS1 and OS2 SFMs, such as performance, transmission distance and cost, etc. The maximum distance of OS1 SMF is 2 km while the transmission distance of OS2 is 5 km and is up to 10 km. The following table shows OS1 and OS2 specification differences.

Conclusion

Single-mode fiber patch cable supports advanced network applications required in data centers, enabling guaranteed performance for Gigabit applications. We have mentioned the features, two SMF types and their differences, and you may get some basic information about this type of fiber patch cables. Hope you can choose the right one for you network.

Patch Panel: What it is and Why Your Data Center Needs it

What is a Patch Panel?

A patch panel is a piece of hardware with multiple ports that helps organize a group of cables. Each of these ports contains a wire that goes to a different location.  Patch panels can be quite small, with just a few ports, or very large, with many hundreds of ports. They can also be set up for fiber optic cables, cat5 cables, RJ45 cables, and many others.

What is a Patch Panel Used for?

Patch panels connect various IT devices together. They are in many different environments including communications closets, telephone company central offices, and data centers. Understanding the role they play can help to determine if your facility requires a patch panel, and if so, how to set it up.

Each port in a patch panel goes to a different device somewhere in the facility. Each panel bundles all the connections together in order to connect to another network. This is often how a LAN connects to a WAN, or to the Internet. Patch panels are also commonly used in facilities with a lot of telephone lines, in which one mainline is used for all phones.

Advantages of Patch Panels

Patch panels are an important piece of equipment in the data center. Using a patch panel comes with many advantages that make it well worth the investment. Some of the most significant benefits of using patch panels include:

Scalability – After installing a patch panel, you can easily add new devices without having to run new cables end-to-end.

Reduces Cable Clutter – Patch panels are typically located closer to the actual equipment. This makes it possible to use a shorter patch cable. From the panel, a fiber optic or other high capacity connection runs to the next network or the internet.

Inexpensive – Patch panels aren’t considered “smart” devices in that they don’t perform any function other than facilitating the passing of data. This means they are very inexpensive.

Lowering Cable Cost – Having a patch panel allows you to use shorter cables, which cost less than longer ones. Typically, you can also use inexpensive cat-5 cables to get to the patch panel rather than costly fiber optics.

Easier Maintenance – If you ever need to run a test cable, test a port, or perform any other common maintenance tasks, it can be done more quickly and is much easier than if each device had a cable run to its final destination.

Patch panels are one of the oldest types of technical equipment still popular today. They are quite simple in their design and function, but still, help to improve the organization and function of a data center or almost any other environment with lots of equipment.

Patch Panel Cable Management System

With dozens, or even hundreds, of cables coming into and out of a patch panel, it can be easy for things to become quite tangled and messy. Unorganized cables can make troubleshooting much more difficult, and can even lead to outages if someone unplugs the wrong cable. This is why it is critical to keep organization in mind from the first cable you plug in. There are many things that a person can do to help keep a patch panel organized, including:

Labeling Cables – All cables should be properly labeled at both ends, and in many cases, along the middle as well. Having labels on the cables will make it easy for technicians to confirm they are working on the right lines.

Patch Cable Organizers – Patch cable organizers allow you to run lines neatly and evenly to each port so you can see exactly where things are coming from and going to.

Color-Coded Cables – Using color-coded cables will allow you to quickly identify what type of cable is in each place.

Zip Ties – Using zip ties to bundle cables that are going to the same server rack or other location will help keep things looking neat and organized.

The most important thing when it comes to patch cable management is having a good plan right from the beginning. It is much easier to spend a little extra time coming up with a good way to run your cables than it is to try to untangle hundreds of wires down the road.