What are the differences among OLT, ONU and ONT?

In recent years, Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is rapidly developing support technologies. The TOLT, ONU and ONT are now widely used in fiber network access in city. 

In recent years, Fiber to the Home (FTTH) is rapidly developing support technologies. The TOLT, ONU and ONT are now widely used in fiber network access in city. It can help efficiently reduce network construction cost, while simultaneously providing a guarantee on high bandwidth and high integration.

 

Optical Line Terminal (OLT)

 

OLT (Optical Line Terminal) is the endpoint hardware device located at the central office in a Passive Optical Network (PON). The OLT contains a central processing unit, a gateway router, voice gateway uplink cards and passive optical network cards. The main functionality of the OLT is to adapt the incoming traffic (voice/data/video) from the metropolitan rings into the PON transport layer. It can transmit a data signal to users at 1490nm wavelength. That signal can serve up to 128 ONTs at a range of up to 12.5 miles by using Optical Splitters.

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Optical Network Unit (ONU)

 

ONU converts optical signals transmitted via fiber to electrical signals. These electrical signals are then sent to individual subscribers. In general, there is a distance or other access network between ONU and end user’s premises. Furthermore, ONU can send, aggregate and groom different types of data coming from customer and send it upstream to the OLT. Grooming is the process that optimises and reorganises the data stream so it would be delivered more efficient. OLT supports bandwidth allocation that allows to make smooth delivery of data float to the OLT, that usually arrives in bursts from customer. ONU could be connected by various methods and cable types, like twisted-pair copper wire, coaxial cable, optical fiber or Wi-Fi.

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Optical Network Terminal (ONT)

 

ONU and ONT are basically the same device – ONT is located at the customer premise, and ONU is located outside the home. ONU can be working in different temperature and weather conditions. It should resist water, winds and vandals. The ONU usually communicates with an optical network terminal (ONT), which may be a separate box that connects the PON to TV sets, telephones, computers, or a wireless router.

 

Functions

OLT is generally employed for terminal connected to the fiber backbone. An OLT has two primary functions:

  • Converting the standard signals use by a FiOS service provider to the frequency and framing used by the PON system;
  • Coordinating the multiplexing between the conversion devices on the optical network terminals (OLTs) located on the customers’ premises.

 

ONT (Optical Network Terminal), also ONU (Optical Network Unit)

ONT location,is at the customer’s premises. Its purpose is to use optical fiber for connecting to the PON on the one side, while interfacing with customers on the other side. ONT supports wide variety of interfaces, depending on requirements of customer:

  • Digital video formats
  • Analog video formats
  • ATM interfaces (155 Mbps)
  • DS3 or E3 telephone connections (44.736 or 34.368 Mbps)
  • T1 or E1 (1.544 or 2.048 Mbps)
  • Various Ethernet rates

 

To describe simply, OLT means Optical Line Terminal. ONU is the Optical Network Unit. ONT means Optical Network Terminal.OLT use fiber cables, adapters and others to connect with ONU and ONT, in order to build ODN (Optical Distribution Network).Both of ONU and ONT are client-side devices, no difference in nature, but if you have to distinguish, it can be seen from the name difference.ONT is the optical network terminal, applied to the end user, and ONU refers to the optical network unit, which is with the end user. There may be other networks.give a simple example, such as in a district, ONT is directly on the user’s home equipment, and ONU may be placed in the corridor, each user through the switch and other equipment connected to the ONU.

 

Conclusion

The development of fiber optic networks, ONT and OLT are indispensable components in the GPON network system. Fiber-Mart provides OLTs for both EPON and GPON systems. Any question pls feel free to contact with us. E-mail: Service@fiber-mart.com

Passive Optical Network (PON) Knowledge Introduction

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Passive Optical Network (PON) is a system that transmits all or most of the fiber cabling and signals to end-users. Depending on where the PON terminal is located, the system can be described as fiber-to-the-curb (FTTC), fiber-to-the-building (FTTB), or fiber-to-the-home (FTTH).
The optical distribution network does not contain any electronic devices and electronic power supply, ODN splitter consist of the passive components, and other components do not require expensive active electronic devices. A passive optical network includes an optical line terminal (OLT) installed at a central control station and a set of optical network units (ONUs) installed at customer side. The Optical Distribution Network (ODN) between the OLT and the ONU contains optical fibers as well as passive optical splitters or couplers.
The structure of the PON system is mainly composed of an Optical Line Terminal (OLT) at the ca0rrier’s office, an Optical Distribution Network (ODN) including passive optical components, an ONU (Optical Network Unit / ONT (Optical Network Terminal). The difference is that the ONT is directly located at the user end, and there are other networks between the ONU and the user, such as Ethernet) and the network element management system (EMS), and usually adopts point-to-multipoint Tree topology.
Introduction
Fiber is so cheap and easy to use, so FTTx (Fiber To The X, fiber access) as a new generation of broadband solutions are widely used to provide users with high-bandwidth, full-service access platform. The FTTH (Fiber To The Home, FTTH, the fiber is directly connected to the user’s home) is also known as the best business transparent network, is the ultimate way of access network development.
The FTTx is how to work? In many kinds of schemes, P2MP optical access mode PON (Passive Optical Network, passive optical network) is the best choice. PON is an optical distribution network (ODN) which is applied to an access network, an OLT and a plurality of client devices (ONU / ONT) through passive optical cables, optical splitters/combiners, etc., Connected network. As shown on the right.
• OLT (Optical Line Terminal, optical line terminal)
• ONU (Optical Network Unit, optical network unit)
• ONT (Optical Network Terminal, optical network terminal)
• ODN (Optical Distribution Network, optical distribution network)
Both the ONU and the ONT belong to the user equipment. The difference between them lies in that the ONT is located directly on the user end, and there are other networks between the ONU and the user, such as Ethernet.
The key point of “passive” is that the ODN between the OLT and the ONU is an optical access network without any active electronic equipment. Because of this “passive” feature, the purely PON network can avoid electromagnetic Interference and lightning effects reduce line and external device failure rates, improve system reliability, and reduce maintenance costs.
PON technology began to develop in the 1990s, ITU (International Telecommunication Union) started from APON (155 M), developed BPON (622 M), and to GPON (2.5 G); meanwhile, in this century, due to Ethernet technology widespread application, IEEE also developed EPON technology in Ethernet technology. At present, PON technologies for broadband access mainly include EPON and GPON, and the two adopt different standards. The future development is higher bandwidth, such as EPON / GPON technology has developed 10G EPON / 10G GPON, the bandwidth has been a higher upgrade.
Click here to learn more about the difference and comparison between GPON and EPON
PON Features
The complexity of PON lies in the signal processing technology. In the downlink direction, the switch sends the signal is broadcast to all users. In the uplink direction, each ONU must use some kinds of multiple access protocols such as TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) protocols to complete the shared transmission channel information access. Currently used for broadband access PON technologies are: EPON and GPON.
PON Standards
• ITU-T G.983
APON (Passive Optical Network), This is the first passive optical network standard, which is based on ATM and is mainly used in commercial applications. BPON (Broadband Passive Optical Network),  This is an APON-based standard that adds support for WDM, dynamic and high-speed uplink bandwidth allocation, and endurance. BPON also created a management interface standard OMCI, authorized between the OLT and ONU / ONT hybrid supplier network.
• IEEE 802.3ah
EPON or GEPON (Ethernet Passive Optical Network), This is an IEEE / EFM standard for data using Ethernet packets. The 802.3ah standard is now part of the IEEE 802.3 standard and there are now about 15 million EPON ports in use. In 2008, China vigorously developed EPON technology. It is estimated that as of the end of 2008, China had a total of 2 million EPON installation users.
• ITU-T G.984
GPON (Gigabit PON, Gigabit Passive Optical Network), This is a BPON standard development. GPON supports higher rates, enhanced security and optional Layer 2 protocols (ATM, GEM, Ethernet). In mid-2008, 900,000 lines had been installed by the company, and British Telecom And AT & T are conducting advanced trials.
• IEEE P802.3av
10G-EPON (10 Gigabit Ethernet PON) is an IEEE dedicated project that is backward compatible with 802.3ah standard EPON in order to achieve 10 Gbit/s. 10Gig EPON will use separate wavelengths for 10G and 1G downstream. 802.3av will continue to be isolated using separate wavelength TDMA for uplink between 10G and 1G. 10G-EPON will also be WDM-PON compatible (as defined by WDM-PON).This allows multiple wavelengths to be used in both directions It is possible.
• SCTE IPS910
RFoG (RFoverGlass) is an SCTE interface practice subcommittee standard for point-to-multipoint (P2MP) operation with wavelength planning compatible data PON solutions such as EPON, GEPON or 10Gig EPON.
PON technology status
The traditional downlink data flow of PON system adopts a broadcasting technology, and the uplink data flow uses TDMA technology to solve the problem of multiplexing signals in each direction of multi-user. The traditional PON technology uses WDM technology to implement single-fiber bidirectional transmission on optical fibers and solve the multiplexing transmission of signals in two directions. PON generally by the optical line terminal (OLT), optical splitter (ODU), the user terminal (ONU) 3 parts. Currently, PON technologies widely used in the current network include two mainstream technologies, EPON and GPON. The bandwidth for EPON uplink and downlink is 1.25 Gbit / s, the downlink bandwidth for GPON is 2.5 Gbit / s, and the uplink bandwidth is 1.25 Gbit / s.
Currently, in the actual FTTx application scenario, most EPON / GPONs only have an Ethernet interface, and POTS and 2M interfaces are optional. However, from the technical standards, EPON / GPON can achieve multi-service access such as IP service and TDM service and realize QoS classification.
EPON / GPON can transmit the clock synchronization signal. The frequency synchronization signal can be extracted from the external line through the STM-1 interface or the GE interface of the OLT. In this case, the OLT needs to support synchronous Ethernet, and can also be input from the external BITS on the OLT device The clock signal, as a common clock source of the PON, is kept in frequency synchronization with the clock source.
PON Standards Development
Although 10G EPON and PON have not yet been commercialized on a large scale, the PON technology at a rate of more than 10 Gbit / s is the focus and hot point of the research of ITU-T and FSAN in the past two years. The relevant technical standards of XG-PON1 have become mature, NG-PON2 standard after XG-PON1 ITU-T related standards for GPON, XG-PON1, and NGPON2 The framework has basically been completed. The emphasis on recent multi-wavelength extensions is the focus of recent technical studies where FSAN has identified TWDM-PON as the technology of choice for NG-PON2 in the future, but the G. multi-standard that standardizes multiple technologies in ITU-T SG15 has also been largely completed.
PON Advantages
• Energy consumption
Imagine the ongoing costs of energy-inefficient equipment and equipment needed to operate in traditional Ethernet LANs and the additional energy costs to cool or heat the closet space. Achieving More Than 50% Savings by Eliminating Active Switches, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS) Devices, and Additional Power Demand is a year-by-year cost-effective annuity.
• Save space
The PON architecture requires a separate data center room, with splitters on each floor, usually hidden in a maintenance or electrical cabinet. Traditional Ethernet closets require more than 100 to 200 square feet of floor space per floor, and these spaces are returned to customers for functional or even potential revenue-generating space. Just reducing the weight of the ceiling wiring is amazing. BICSI announced that the traditional 114-port copper Ethernet design required 890 pounds of copper and fiber optic backbone; in contrast, the 114-port PON design required only 180 pounds of fiber optic cable, about one-fifth the size of a traditional design.
• Installation Savings
Which sounds easier? Installing and Terminating (5) Category 6A UTP cable to each hotel room, or (1) Fiber optic cable in each room … Each floor without cable tray, rack, and traditional cabinet. Few components require grounding and coding, and fire through holes are much smaller and less expensive.
• Safety
Passive optical networks LANs are naturally more secure than Ethernet LANs for the simple reason that optical fibers are not as conductive as copper. Unfortunately, electronic-based services are known as security risk points because copper emits electromagnetic radiation (EMR) signals. These signals contain all the information copper carries at the time and can be intercepted and reconstructed on nearby devices.
• Speed and bandwidth
We have already mentioned the potential of speed and bandwidth, which is why in the 90s we wanted to achieve the “fiber to the desktop” dream. The reality now is that, for example, new hotels that have moved to PON are now gaining the benefits of improved high-speed Internet access (HSIA) performance from their guests, improving customer satisfaction surveys and increasing occupancy rates.

Differences Between FBT Splitter and PLC Splitter

In future fiber networks, splitters provide capabilities that help users maximize the functionality of optical network circuits.according to different manufacture technologies, fiber optic splitters can be divided into PLC splitter and FBT splitter.

In future fiber networks, splitters provide capabilities that help users maximize the functionality of optical network circuits.according to different manufacture technologies, fiber optic splitters can be divided into PLC splitter and FBT splitter.

What is Fiber Optic Splitter?

Fiber Optic splitter is suitable for a fiber optic signal to be decomposed into mufti-channel optical signal output.

Fiber splitters are comprised of three fibers – two fiber legs on one side that overlap inside a junction with a third fiber at the common end. The fiber type used in each leg is typically the same, but can also be custom configured to have different fiber core diameters or wavelength ranges. fiber splitters are good for mixing light from two different locations and delivering it through a single fiber to a spectrometer or sample.  This ability can be used to combine illumination from two different light sources, or to mix light collected from two different sampling points before delivery to a spectrometer.

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Optical Splitter is used to split the fiber optic light into several parts at a certain ratio. It is an important component used in Passive Optical Network (PON), therefore also called PON Splitter. There are mainly two kinds of PON splitters: one is the traditional fused type splitter known as FBT Coupler or FBT WDM splitter, which features competitive price; the other is the PLC Splitter based on the PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) technology, which has a compact size and suits for density applications. fiber optic splitter, also known as a beam splitter, is based on a quartz substrate of an integrated waveguide optical power distribution device, similar to a coaxial cable transmission system. The optical network system also needs to be an optical signal coupled to the branch distribution. In which requires the fiber optic splitter is one of the most important passive devices in the optical fiber link, is optical fiber tandem device with many input terminals and many output terminals, especially applicable to a passive optical network (EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH etc.) to connect the MDF and the terminal equipment and to achieve the branching of the optical signal.

FBT Splitters

FBT splitter is made out of materials that are easily available, for example steel, fiber, hot dorm and others. All of these materials are low-price, which determines the low cost of the device itself. Fused Biconical Taper (FBT) is used for splitting or combining optical signals and is tied to two or more fibers, and then melted in a cone machine, pull tensile and real-time monitoring of changes in splitting ratio, melt tensile splitting ratio to meet the requirements end, wherein one end of a fiber optic reserved ( The remaining cut off) as the input terminal and the other end a multitude of road outputs. Mature tapering process can only pull 1 × 4. 1 × 4 or more devices, with a plurality of 1 × 2 connected together. Then the whole package in the splitter box. The splitting or coupling ratio is controlled and can be modified upopn costumer request as well as the amount of splitting ports. The FBT coupler supports dicrete wavelength window.

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PLC Splitters

PLC splitter manufacturing technology is more complex. It uses semiconductor technology (lithography, etching, developer technology) production, hence it is more difficult to manufacture. PLC refers to planar lightwave circuit. As a micro-optical device, PLC splitter uses an optical chip to split the input signal into various outputs. At the edge of the chip, there is a light circuit in ribbon form mounted on a carrier and fibers. PLC splitter typically adopts silica glass as the material of lightwave circuit and accepts different types of polished finishes. The substrate, waveguide and lid are three basic layers of the PLC splitter. For different applications, PLC splitters can be further categorized into different types including bare PLC splitters, blockless PLC splitters, ABS PLC splitters, LGX box PLC splitters, mini plug-in type PLC splitters, tray type PLC splitters and 1U rack mount PLC splitters.

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Differences Between FBT Splitter and PLC Splitter

In this part, we will take a look at the main differences between FBT splitter and PLC splitter , which are listed in following.

 

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PLC splitters are optimal split applications since they facilitate the construction of many optical circuits in a compact size. although the outer appearance and size of FBT and PLC fiber splitter seem rather similar, their internal technologies and specifications differ in various ways. Fiber-Mart provides both PLC splitters and FBT coupler splitters for EPON/GPON Systems.any question pls not hesitate to contact us. E-mail:service@fiber-mart.com

What does an Optical Attenuator do ?

With the advancement of DWDM technology, as well as the potential to flexibly upgrade the reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM), the demand for optical attenuator is sure to soar, especially for optical variable attenuator.

With the advancement of DWDM technology, as well as the potential to flexibly upgrade the reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM), the demand for optical attenuator is sure to soar, especially for optical variable attenuator.

 

Optical Attenuators, or fiber optic attenuators, are used in optical communications to reduce optical fiber power at a certain level. Generally, the attenuator types are classified by connector types and attenuation levels. A common version is the female to male plug type bulkhead attenuator which has a connector at one side and a adapter at the other side.in fiber optics, attenuation can also be called transmission loss. It’s the reduction in light signal intensity with regards to the distance traveled by the signal inside a transmission medium. Attenuation is an important element to limit the transmission of the digital signal driving considerable distances. Optical attenuator reduces this optical signal because it travels along a totally unoccupied space or perhaps an optical fiber.

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Optical fiber attenuators may employ several principles when utilized in fiber optic communications. One common principle may be the gap loss principle. Attenuators by using this principle are responsive to the modal distribution ahead of the attenuator. Thus, they should be utilized at or close to the transmitting end. Otherwise, the attenuators could establish less loss than intended. This problem is avoided by attenuators which use absorptive or reflective principles

Types of Fiber Optic Attenuators:

Optical attenuator takes a number of different forms. They are typically grouped as fixed optical attenuator and optical variable attenuator

The fixed attenuator, as the name implies, has a fixed attenuation level. Fixed attenuator can theoretically be designed to provide any amount of attenuation that is desired and be set to deliver a precise power output. Fixed attenuators are typically used for single-mode applications. They mate to regular connectors of the identical type for example FC, ST, SC and LC.

variable optical attenuators (VOA) resistors are replaced with solid state devices like the metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFETs) and PIN diodes. VOA attenuates light signal or beam inside a guarded manner. Thus producing an output optical beam with various attenuated intensity. The attenuator adjusts the ability ratio between your bright beam from the tool and the light beam entering the device over a changeable rate. VOA is usually used in fiber optic communication systems to manage optical power levels in order to prevent damages in optical receivers which may be due to irregular or fluctuating power levels. Price of commercial VOA varies depending on the manufacturing technology used.

Working Principle of Optical Attenuator

Optical attenuator usually works by absorbing the light, like sunglasses absorb the extra light energy. It typically has a working wavelength range in which it can absorb the light energy equally. It should not reflect the light since that could cause unwanted back reflection in the fiber system. Another type of attenuator utilizes a length of high-loss optical fiber, that operates upon its input optical signal power level in such a way that its output signal power level is less than the input level. The power reduction is done by such means as absorption, reflection, diffusion, scattering, deflection, diffraction, and dispersion, etc.

 

Applications of Optical attenuators 

A set optical attenuator fixed amount of attenuation of the optical road to the sunshine energy is principally used for its excellent temperature characteristics. Within the commissioning from the system, widely used in analog optical signal through the corresponding period of optical fiber attenuation or reduce the margin from the optical power the relay station may also be used to prevent saturation from the optical receiver; optical test instrument calibration scaling. For different line interface, you can use different fixed attenuator; if the interface is really a pigtail type available pigtail type optical attenuator welded towards the optical path between the two sections of fiber; If you are debugging the machine connector interface converter or inverter-type fixed attenuator.

Fiber optic attenuator is an essential passive component in the optical communication system. In practical applications often require attenuation quantity of the optical attenuator could be changed using the user needs. Fiber-Mart provides optical attenuators with various connector types, such as FC/SC/ST/LC/E2000, available with APC or UPC polish. Our fixed attenuators can be with different attenuation levels from 1 dB to 30 dB (step by 1 dB), while the variable optical attenuators (generally used as in-line attenuators) can be with a range of 0 ~ 60 dB. Customers can buy these attenuators directly in this category or Make Customized Orders. Any question pls feel free to contact us. E-mail: service@fiber-mart.com

 

WDM Solution

According to the market demand for large transmission capacity in current optical interconnect,network managers are relying more on fiber optics, and requiring more bandwidth and faster transmission rates over ever increasing distances.

According to the market demand for large transmission capacity in current optical interconnect,network managers are relying more on fiber optics, and requiring more bandwidth and faster transmission rates over ever increasing distances.

What is WDM?

Wavelength Division Multiplexing, WDM, is a technology that increases bandwidth by allowing different data streams at different frequencies to be sent over a single optical fiber network. Signals at WDM wavelengths are independent from each other.

Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) technologies can increase capacity on the existing fiber infrastructure. WDM is a technology which multiplexes multiple optical signals onto a single fiber by using different wavelengths, or colors, of light. By utilizing WDM communication methods, network managers can realize a multiplicative effect in their available fiber’s capacity.

WDM technology Short for wavelength division multiplexing, WDM is a way of transmitting multiple simultaneous data streams over the same fiber. Since this happens simultaneously, WDM does not impact transmission speed, latency or bandwidth. WDM functions as multiplexing multiple optical signals on a single fiber by using different wavelengths, or colors, of laser light to carry different signals. Network managers can thus realize a multiplication effect in their available fiber’s capacity with WDM.

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Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing (CWDM)

CWDM increases fiber capacity in either 4, 8, or 18 channel increments. It is a method to maximize existing fiber by decreasing the channel spacing between wavelengths. Since CWDM is a passive technology, Another benefit to the passive CWDM technology is that no configuration is necessary, which makes CWDM a low-cost and effortless technology to implement. The most complex step in CWDM integration is aligning and connecting the patch cables from the correct wavelength optic to the correct port on the multiplexers on each end of the link.

The benefits of CWDM include:

  • Passive equipment that uses no electrical power
  • Extended Temperature Range (0˚C – 70˚C)
  • Lower cost per channel than DWDM
  • Scalability to grow fiber capacity with little or no increased cost
  • Protocol transparent
  • Simple to install and use

Drawbacks of CWDM:

  • 18 channels may not be enough, and fiber amplifier cannot be used with them
  • Passive equipment that has no management capabilities
  • Not the ideal choice for long-haul networks

 

Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength. Using DWDM,  is a layer-1 transport technology that multiplexes several optical signals into the same fiber by using different wavelengths (colors). It allows you to transport more data across existing dark fiber infrastructure.up to 80 (and theoretically more) separate wavelengths or channels of data can be multiplexed into a light-stream transmitted on a single optical fiber.

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Benefits of DWDM:

  • Transparency: due to that DWDM is with a physical layer architecture, it can transparently support both TDM and data formats such as ATM, Gigabit Ethernet, ESCON, and Fibre Channel with open interfaces over a common physical layer.
  • Scalability: DWDM can leverage the abundance of dark fiber in many metropolitan area and enterprise networks to quickly meet demand for capacity on point-to-point links and on spans of existing SONET/SDH rings.
  • Dynamic provisioning: fast, simple, and dynamic provisioning of network connections give providers the ability to provide high-bandwidth services in days rather than months.

 

Drawbacks of DWDM:

  • DWDM solutions are quite expensive
  • Active DWDM solutions require a lot of set-up and maintenance expense

CWDM Mux / Demux

Using CWDM multiplexing technology paired with wavelength specific optics in Transition Networks’ fiber optic devices and switching products allows you to realize the full benefit of CWDM technology. The modular approach that Transition Networks takes toward CWDM deployments makes scaling a project to fit your exact needs easy and affordable. Transition Networks also offers products that optimize standard fixed optic wavelengths on existing products by converting them to the appropriate CWDM “color” or wavelength.

 

DWDM Mux / Demux

the common configuration of DWDM Mux/Demux is from 8 to 96 channels. Maybe in future channels can reach 200 channels or more. DWDM system typically transports channels (wavelengths) in what is known as the conventional band or C band spectrum, with all channels in the 1550nm region. The denser channel spacing requires tighter control of the wavelengths and therefore cooled DWDM optical transceiver modules required, as contrary to CWDM which has broader channel spacing un-cooled optics, such as CWDM SFP, CWDM XFP.

To sum it up, With DWDM Mux/DeMux, single fibers have been able to transmit data at speeds up to 400Gb/s.  there is no doubt that DWDM technology will reshape the future communication network by virtue of its various advantages and applications in many aspects.To expand the bandwidth of your optical communication networks with lower loss and greater distance capabilities.

WDM solution capacity expansion in a more cost-effective, simplified and flexible way.Fiber-MART can help you to choose the right WDM solution.Any question pls feel free to contact us .E-mail: Service@fiber-mart.com

Cable Management Procedures

by http://www.fiber-mart.com

Sound cable management practices help data centers function smoothly and reliably. Managers can implement a variety of procedures to minimize data center inefficiencies, such as slow troubleshooting and interruptions due to the unplugging the wrong equipment.) Well managed cable supports server performance and throughput, minimizes disruptions and downtime, and safeguards the integrity of cables and ports.
One solution for complex networks is the use cable management systems (CMSs). There are many products and services available that managers can use to document cable sub-systems and paths, plan migrations and expansions, and track moves, adds and changes (MACs). The software requires manual entry of cable connections and types, and users must make updates for each move or change to keep documentation accurate. Some CMSs can model data center equipment and migrations and generate task lists for migration.
Horizontal and Vertical Management
Where Main Distribution Areas (MDAs) connect to Horizontal Distribution Areas (HDAs) and then to Equipment Distribution Areas (EDAs), managers need to deploy sturdy, reliable components that support high density, are easy to install, provide adequate spacing between ports, and can handle heavy cable bundles. The horizontal cable manager units are made of metal or heavy plastic. Choose pieces that are best-suited for the cable types and quantities within each rack. Dust covers are appropriate if there is little likelihood of MACs but can get in the way during re-cabling.
When choosing vertical management components, plan for ease of access and allow room for both patch cable slack and future increases in cable density. Use vertical and horizon- tal components that allow for acceptable bend radiuses, so that cables and ports are not damaged over time.
Cabinet Selection
Network or telecommunications cabinets can simplify monitoring and troubleshooting by making switches and patch panels easy to view. Cabinets come in different heights (typically 6U to 15U) to accommodate multiple layers of 19-inch equipment and are wall-mounted to support heavy equipment. They typically include the wall-mount section and the cabinet itself, which is attached to the wall mount and has a Plexiglas front that allows monitoring without opening the cabinet. Doors are reversible to improve usability in tight spaces.
When setting up a cabinet, installers should populate the bottom sections first and add panels upwards from there. There should be sufficient openings to enable airflow, and fans should be added as needed. Locking options are available for secure installations, and there are options to add shelves and/or drawers.
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