Data Switch vs Hub in a Home Network

Data switches and hubs are common networking devices used to regenerate degraded signals and split a signal into multiple signals. They are handy for splitting up an internet connection to your home network. But do you know how they work in a home network? If they both accomplish the same thing, what’s the difference between a data switch vs hub?
What Is a Data Switch?
A data switch is charged with the job of connecting smaller segments of a single network into a connected whole. It transfers data across a network segment using MAC addresses for reference. Data switches are extensively used in Ethernet local area networks. A data switch operates on the Data Link Layer of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. This means that data switches are fairly smarter than hubs, as they can route data on a dynamic level. If information is destined for a certain computer, the data switch will only send the data to this computer. This addresses our collision problem as switches use what is called micro-segmentation, which will be elaborated later in this article.
What Is a Hub?
Hub is a network device which controls number of switches and router for the whole network. A hub is a “dumb” device in that it broadcasts whatever it hears on the input port to all the output ports. The good thing about “dumb” devices is that they don’t need much configuration or maintenance. But this leads to collisions between data packets and a general degrading of network quality. If you have a hub set up between your router and the rest of your network, you’re setting yourself up for a huge headache. A hub looks just like a switch, but works differently on the inside. You connect devices to a hub using Ethernet cable and any signal sent from a device to the hub is simply repeated out on all other ports connected to the hub.
Data Switch vs Hub in a Home Network
Data switch vs hub? How do they differ from each other? Hubs are considered Layer 1 (Physical Layer) devices whereas data switches are put into Layer 2 (Data Link Layer). This is where hubs and switches mainly differ. The Data Link layer of the OSI model deals with MAC addresses and switches look at MAC addresses when they process an incoming frame on a port.
Moreover, a data switch is much smarter but pricier than a hub. A data switch can actively manage the connections between the input port and the output ports, so you won’t run into the collision problem or any of the other issues that plague hubs. As you can see below, there are multiple collision domains or segments for the switch network. If computer A and computer B sent data to each other at the same time, you would have a collision. Computer A and computer C or D, however, will not experience a collision in the process. In comparison, for a hub network, there is just one collision domain, which means that if one computer transmits data, it would be interrupted by any of the other computers in the network. Thus, the more devices you connect to the hub, the more collisions there will be in the whole network. The following figure illustrates a data switch vs hub in collision domains.
Conclusion
Data switch vs hub, which one should you choose for a home network? If you purchased the device in question within the last few years, the chance is almost zero that it’s a hub. Historically, switches were expensive and hubs were cheap, but advances in technology have made switches so cheap that they don’t even bother making hubs anymore. Thus, nowadays data switches are higher-performance alternatives to hubs in a home network. fiber-mart provides a full set of high performance data switches, including gigabit ethernet switch, 10gb ethernet switch, 100gbe ethernet switch, etc. If you have any requirement, please kindly visit http://www.fiber-mart.com.
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How to choose the MPO system for your Fiber Infrastructure

Nowadays, the demand for high connection speeds is increasing at an intimidating pace. People need to send -and receive- more data than ever, and the technology that’s available to them often seems to just not being able to keep up.
Optical fiber seems to represent the best choice when it comes to offering higher speeds -currently required by data center networks. In contrast to multimode and single mode optical networks, which were typically based on duplex fiber links, parallel fiber (MPO-based) connectivity has now become the ideal go-to choice, since it allows the use of pre-terminated systems that can be used in a quick and efficient way.
Nonetheless, this type of connectivity had been used to deliver duplex connectivity combined with duplex modules and breakouts. The selection of multifiber interfaces responds to the demands of increasing applications and density.
This turnover has led to a general consideration of using duplex connectivity, but at the same time, it needs to fill the necessity of including a combination of parallel and duplex interfaces.
Apart from considering these new iterations, it is essential to have a solid grasp on the evolution of network equipment and on the advantages of implementing an infrastructure based on duplex connections.
That being said, let us walk you through the Ethernet Roadmap.
There are several applications housed in data centers, which implies that those applications will demand a diversity in the connectivity topologies. It is commonly known that most networks use duplex links, but the demand for higher speeds requires using duplex links into other groups of links, which is when the term of parallel links enter the debate.
Likewise, this new incorporation asks for certain cabling structures that can handle this new array of options while having the acute vision of what the new results from this structures may provide us with. In other words, what we’re now witnessing it’s a migration from arrangements that involve duplex links into parallel link options that need to cover the requirements of higher speeds.
The great thing about parallel links is that they reduce the operation costs at a significant rate. Since they offer higher connectivity densities, it reduces the power consumption to send that data. This type of connection multiplies the information been transported, so it offers a notable reduction in the time employed in the transmission of information.
The increase of speeds has also developed a certain progress when it comes to the outlining of separate transmission lanes. In the end, the throughput will be augmented due to the incorporation of additional fiber, or the multiplexing over just a single a fiber.
Each one of these parameters will determine the selection of the fiber media and the options for cabling that will become the most appropriate for your data center. The decision of moving from single and duplex links to parallel ones will surely affect your cabling choice. This may traduce to a significant cost at the beginning, but it shall be seen as an investment in the long term.
The first thing you need to do is to determine the desired capacity that your data center will possess in the short-term future. Your team can come in handy forecasting this scenario since it is very well equipped with considering, evaluating and even trying several technologies, platforms and routing strategies.
After coming to terms to answering each one of the specific requirements demanded by your new system, the pre-terminated MPO-based fiber cabling system will enable a quicker utilisation and a certain flexibility of configuration, along with a cabling topology that corresponds appropriately with the new direction and desired performance of your data center direction.
Multimode fiber is definitely the primary media choice for the enterprise data center. Each one of the diverse types of multimode fiber (MMF) will affect the scale and scope of the data center that can be supported when speeds increase, so you need to take that into consideration.
Aside from combining “lanes” to provide for higher and better link speeds, multiplexing several wavelengths on a single pair of fibers offers great results.
The great thing about this new structure of links is that it offers a new set of applications. Depending on the type of configuration, migrations can be enabled between duplex and parallel optics.
This quality is very eloquent when it comes to supporting the notion of the flexibility offered by parallel links. If new needs come up, you should be able to accommodate those necessities by making adjustments to your new structure in your data center.
Every decision that you make towards implementing parallel links will affect your structure -and space- of your cabling, so every single analysis that you can make before adding something to your new structure should be mandatory.
To put it mildly, you need to be aware of the physical space every new configuration is going to occupy. You can have lots of great ideas for new connections, but if you can’t afford the space for it, none of them will work out. But don’t worry, you just need to gain conscience of the dimensions of your cabling configurations so you can design them and implement them properly.
The good thing about duplex cables is that they are very flexible, so not all of these considerations should be thought of as limitations. You can work around them -and, trust us, you should!
By merely thinking about all of this, you could be concerned about the cost it implies, and we hear you. Notwithstanding, this is a cost you need to assume. Not only because the current situation demands it, but also because this decision will stand out as an investment for the near future.
New designs imply adjustments so you can incorporate duplex and parallel connections, meaning that perhaps new racks or more space for your cabling will be needed. This inclusion will also call for changes in the management of your team, which will have to face new ways to handle these devices.
Human beings tend to reject at first all sorts of changes, it’s in our nature, but if you are totally convinced on the benefits that each and single one of these procedures will bring to your data center in the future, you will work through them focused on having the vision aiming at an impending success. The current concerns need to be replaced with a relentless optimism that your work will be enhanced in the long run.
We hope you find this article very useful and that this information can help you increase the speed -and hopefully the quality- of your data center.

Why you use the unit "micron" in Fiber Optics?

The micrometer (μm) also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 1×10−6 of a metre, that is, one millionth of a meter.
The micrometer is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibers. The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm. The first and longest human chromosome is approximately 10μm in length.
The term micron and the symbol μ were officially accepted for use in isolation to denote the micrometer in 1879, but officially revoked by the International System of Units (SI) in 1967.
This became necessary because the older usage was incompatible with the official adoption of the unit prefix micro-, denoted μ, during the creation of the SI in 1960. In the SI, the systematic name micrometer became the official name of the unit, and μm became the official unit symbol.
In American English the use of “micron” helps differentiate the unit from the micrometre, a measuring device, because the unit’s name in mainstream American spelling is a homograph of the device’s name. In spoken English, they may be distinguished by pronunciation, as the name of the measuring device is invariably stressed on the second syllable, whereas the systematic pronunciation of the unit name, in accordance with the convention for pronouncing SI units in English, places the stress on the first syllable.
The plural of micron is normally “microns”, though “micra” was occasionally used before 1950.
Microns and Fiber Optic
Microns are present in fiber optic. The two basic types of fiber are multimode and single mode. In these categories, fibers are identified by the diameters of their core and their cladding expressed in microns (one billionth of a meter), for example, multimode fiber of 50/125 microns. Most fibers have 125 microns of outer diameter (one micron is one millionth of a meter, and 125 microns is 0.0127 centimeters) barely a little larger than a human hair.
These terms refer to the diameter of microns of a fiber optic cable’s core and cladding.
The first set of numbers – 9, 50 and 62.5 refer to the diameter of the fiber cable’s core.
The second set of numbers – 125 refer to the diameter of the outside of the fiber cable’s cladding.
The cladding is a special coating that keeps the light from escaping the glass core.
9/125 refers to a single mode fiber cable. 50/125 and 62.5/125 refer to multimode fiber cable.
Conclusion
The answer is very simple. The microns are present in fiber optic because their small size, this way is easier to elaborate the cable and to adopt and standard for the entire world.

The recent state of Optical Fiber Connectors

We have already covered the fundamentals of the optics connectors in a previous post. We explained the differences in polishing, RL and IL and choosing the right one. Nonetheless, technology keeps moving forward, and we need to be aware of the latest advancements so we can properly take advantage of the resources at our disposal.
In this post, we’ll take a look at the most recent developments in the field of connectors. So feel free to join the ride, and explore what the next generation of connectors is all about!
Nowadays, physical space has become an important issue. With the advent of more connection needs, size has gotten increasingly valuable when it comes to adopting new connections for the future. This is where splice-on connectors come in handy since they have expanded the catalog of resources for companies that need to establish new connections in their plants.
New connectors, ranging from fiber-to-the-x (FTTx) to no-epoxy/no-polish (NENP), for example, are now being used to augment speed and diminishes expenses. These new modules allow to decrease the size required for a “splice tray” and diminish the cost of space needed. This shall be the trend followed by the new developments in optic fiber connectors.
The increasing demand for access networks and the increased value of rack space has originated the inclusion of small form connectors or multi-fiber connectors with high-bandwidth features. This need is represented by repair, need to improve fiber routing, fiber system upgrades and installation of space to temporary connections.
The current needs of the optic fiber scene have aimed towards a technology and equipment-cost perspective. The demand and the technology and have made a notorious impact on the cost and performance of the next generation of connectors.
The other area that has been dramatically changed in field termination, is represented by the need for an angled polished connector (APC) end face as the interface. APC interface has become the industry standard for FTTx and other outside plant equipment. That being said, the cost of material per termination has been reduced considerably as the new generation of connectors has become commonly utilized.
Anaerobic (epoxy/polish):
These connectors have been made by taking the existing field fiber and adhering it inside the ferrule. These anaerobic terminations are low-cost connectors that offer a robust performance over time and throughout changes in temperature. Anaerobic connectors have now been justifiably accepted in the optic fiber industry. Perhaps the only limitation of these terminations it that their efficiency is highly determined by the expertise of the technicians who install them and handle them.
No-epoxy no-polish (NENP):
These connectors posses a physical way of retaining the field fiber by compression and meet the fiber retention qualities while offering/providing a factory-polished end face for mating in the adapter. The only conditions for a proper performance of this type of terminations are represented by location and stability. The retention technology that these terminations offer is established by its manufacturers. The only foreseeable limitation is the impact of temperature in these terminations, which can cause unwanted margins of loss.
NENP angled polished connectors: The introduction of consistent APC terminations has filled the necessity of field-installed APC connectors in FTTx-type projects. However, the incorporation and alignment of these connectors are both time-consuming and extremely craft-sensitive. The consequence is a considerable need for a higher maintenance, which may add cost to the termination.
The variables of field deployment range from temperature change, performance variation due to factory fiber characteristics, quality of field fiber with regards to quality of fiber, tools and termination process. Taking into consideration all of these variables when defining a mechanical connector, the manufacturers have been able to consistently meet the insertion of loss requirements. The individual optical performance requirements have to be addressed with the specific mechanical connector manufacturer to guarantee a flawless optical plant is being put together.
Fusion splice-on connectors:
These connectors remove some variables and add strength. The vast majority of splice-on connectors are now available for use in the field and they are able to retain a consistent splice loss and return loss over temperature and time. These connectors can keep the performance of a splice-on pigtail without having to store a splice sleeve and they stand for being the most robust and consistent option for field-installable fiber connectors.
MPO/MTP® connector:
These terminations provide offers strength in numbers. Holding the strength from the fusion splice type connector and expanding its flexibility for field deployment generates a field-installable multi-fiber connector known as the MPO (multi-fiber push on). This connector offers the same benefits as a single fiber fusion splice-on connector but terminates up to 12 fibers per connection. This type of connector helps with restoration, repair and upgrade projects of existing MPO networks. The factory end face and fusion spliced optical path produce a solid alternative for field termination. The MPO termination has been growing and will continue to grow with fiber consolidation and high-speed bandwidth connections.
Self-contained patch and splice modules:
This is a variation of field-installable termination that goes into a self-contained field-installable patch and splice module. Field-installable modules employ a traditional pigtail splice to an adapter; fortunately, the need for factory pre-termination is removed. This is very convenient to those cases where space is limited or when you need a small footprint fiber termination. Because this module is self-contained, patch and splice, this option constitutes a cost-effective solution when adding a circuit to an existing fiber rack system or colocation type deployment.
Taking a decision towards which one of these options are the best for your needs is certainly not easy, but that doesn’t mean that you won’t be able to make a proper decision. You just need to gather a good amount of solid information based on what your system really needs.
It is mandatory then to have a good sense of the space available for potential adjustments. That being said, you then need to take a close look at the available options offered by trustworthy manufacturers. If you do a thorough research, rest assured that you will find the resources that will accommodate your needs.
So don’t despair if you suspect that you’re not able to find a perfect solution to your problem because more often than not, that seems to be the case. Just make sure to focus on having a solid understanding on the demands, study proficiently the resources at your disposal and then get prepared to make the ultimate decision that will help you satisfy what you most urgently need for.
We really hope you can find all of this information very useful for your projects.

New Fiber Optics transmission record reported at OFC2018

The NICT (Network System Research Institute )and Fujikura Ltd. (Fujikura, President: Masahiko Ito) developed a 3-mode optical fiber, capable of wide-band wavelength multiplexing transmission with a standard outer diameter (0.125 mm) that can be cabled with existing equipment.
The researchers have successfully demonstrated a transmission experiment over +1000 km with a data-rate of 159 Tb/s. Multimode fibers have different propagation delays between optical signals in different modes that make it difficult to simultaneously satisfy large data-rates and long-distance transmission. This achievement shows that such limitations may be overcome.
Converting the results to the product of data-rate and distance, which is a general indicator of transmission capability, results in 166 Pb/s×km. This is the world record in a standard outer diameter few-mode optical fiber and the largest data-rate over 1000 km for any kind of standard-diameter fiber. In order to achieve the transmission capacity of 159 Tb/s, mode multiplexing is used in combination with 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), which is a practical high-density multilevel modulation optical signal, for all 348 wavelengths and MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) enables unscrambling of mixed modal signals even after transmission over more than 1000 km. This shows that standard outer diameter multimode fibers can be used for communication of high capacity optical backbone transmission systems.
The results of this demonstration were selected for presentation as a post-deadline paper at the 41st Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibition (OFC2018).
In order to cope with ever-increasing communication traffic, research on large-scale optical transmission using new types of optical fiber exceeding the limit of conventional optical fiber and its application is actively conducted all over the world. The main new types of optical fibers studied are multicore fibers in which multiple passages (cores) are arranged in an optical fiber and multimode fibers that support multiple propagation modes in a single core with a larger core diameter. Up to now, successful transmission experiments of large capacity and long distance have been reported for multicore fiber, but it was considered that transmission which satisfied both large capacity and long distance simultaneously was difficult in multimode fiber.
In this work, NICT constructed a transmission system using an optical fiber developed by Fujikura and successfully transmitted over 1045 km with a data-rate of 159 Tb/s (Fig. 1). Converting the results to the product of transmission data-rate and distance, which is a general indicator of transmission capability, is 166 Pb/s×km. This is about twice the world record so far in the few-mode fibers.
The transmission system consists of the following element technologies.
3-mode optical fiber with standard outer diameter 0.125 mm
348 wavelength optical comb light source
16-QAM multi-level modulation technology equivalent to 4 bits / single polarization symbol
Separation technology of multimode optical signals with different propagation speeds in fiber (MIMO processing)
The researchers succeeded in transmitting over 1045 km using a standard 3-mode optical fiber. When laying of standard outer diameter optical fibers takes place, the existing equipment can be used and the practical use at an early stage is promising. Also, the ultimate large-capacity transmission will become possible in the future if combined with multicore technology, which is researched by NICT in cooperation with industry, university, and government in Japan.
The researchers will continue to research and develop future optical communication infrastructure technologies which can smoothly accommodate traffic such as big data and 5G network services.

Why you should care about better fiber optics?

Doing some research online we found this article in the Fhys.org Website, The original article was delivered by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Fiber optic research can give us better medical equipment, improved environmental monitoring, more media channels—and maybe better solar panels.
“Optical fibres are remarkably good at transmitting signals without much loss in the transfer,” says Professor Ursula Gibson at NTNU’s Department of Physics.
However: “Glass fibres are good up to a wavelength of about 3 microns. More than that, and they’re not so good,” she says.
And that is sometimes problematic. Telecom uses the near-infrared part of the wave spectrum because it has the least loss of energy when passing through the glass.
But if we could utilize even longer wavelengths, the benefits would include better medical diagnoses and more precise environmental monitoring of airborne gas particles. Longer wavelengths could also mean more space for media channels since the competition is fierce for the wavelengths where free space transmission normally takes place now.
Optical glass fibres are not made of pure glass, but require a core with a bit of some other material to transmit signals.
This is clearly quite complicated to achieve, and the methods have gradually been perfected over the last 50 years.At NTNU, various research groups have been experimenting with optical fibres using a semiconductor core of silicon (Si) and gallium antimonide (GaSb) instead of small amounts of germanium oxide, which is used in silica fibres now. Some of the researchers’ latest research findings have now been presented in Nature Communications.
Ph.D. candidate Seunghan Song is the first author of the article in the prestigious journal. The article “describes a method for making optical fibers were part of the core that is gallium antimonide, which can emit infrared light. Then the fiber is laser treated to concentrate the antimonide,” says Gibson.
This process is carried at room temperature. The laser processing affects the properties of the core.
Silicon is well known as the most commonly used material in solar panels. Along with oxygen, silicon is the most common material in glass and glass fiber cables as well.
Gallium antimonide is less typical, although others have also used the same composition in optical instruments. But not in the same way.
With the new method, the gallium antimonide is initially distributed throughout the silicon. This is a simpler and cheaper method than others to grow crystals, and the technology offers many possible applications.
“Our results are first and foremost a step towards opening up a larger portion of the electromagnetic wave spectrum for optical fiber transmission,” Gibson says.
Learning about the fundamental properties of the semiconductor materials in glass fibers allows us to make more efficient use of rare resources like gallium.

A Short Introduction of Data Center Industry in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is an island country of South Asia, located in the India Ocean. The largest city is colombo. The total area of Sri Lanka is 65,610 km2, and population is about 20 million. GDP per capital (PPP) of Sri Lanka is $13,500, ranking the 91st in the world of 2018. Sri Lanka is very famous for its tourism and tea export. It retains many Buddhism traditional culture and owns the beautiful scenery and landscape of tropical island. As the island is shaped like a teardrop, Sri Lanka has a beautiful name of a teardrop in India Ocean.
Data Center Industry
Sri Lanka has 34 internet users per 100, ranking No.147 in the global internet usage in 2017. Sri Lanka is the No.64 globally ranked country based on data center density. And the connectivity ecosystem is made up of 6 colocation data centers, 3 cloud service providers. The largest three data centers are built by Dialog Axiata, Tata Communication and Sri Lanka Telecom.
TATA Communications Lanka Ltd
TATA Communications Sri Lanka Data Center is located at Taj Samudra, Colombo 03, Colombo, Sri Lanka. It is a subsidiary of TATA Communications Limited, a TATA Group company and one of the largest telecommunications service providers in the world. Providing services to customers in Sri Lanka, TATA Communications Lanka has unrestricted access to the global network and infrastructure of TATA Communications Limited. TATA Communications Lanka Ltd inaugurated its second International Gateway in Sri Lanka at the emerging IT Park, Orion City in 2011. Strengthening its seven-year presence in the country, the new facility will further strengthen the reliability and stability of its services to both operators and enterprise customers.
Sri Lanka Telecom
Sri Lanka Telecom (SLT) has opened a 500-rack national data center in Pitipana, 40 kilometers away from the capital Colombo. Customers will be able to hire racks as and when they are required to manage their CAPEX and OPEX effectively. With this move enterprise customers and government organizations will get the freedom to minimize their investments and operational expenditure by eliminating the need for maintaining their own data centers. The rental payment expected from the customers will be far less in comparison to the amount they would need to invest and spend continuously in order to have their own data centers. SLT intends to provide expert knowledge and bear all costs associated with space, protection, disaster management etc. All data entrusted to the data centre will be stored lawfully following all necessary regulations and is thus secure against any vulnerability.
The facility was built with the assistance of the Ministry of Telecommunications and Digital Infrastructure, and has obtained Tier III Design certification from the Uptime Institute. SLT is the licensed national backbone network operator in Sri Lanka, and one of the country’s largest companies. Constriction on its latest data center, a three-story building in the newly proposed Tech City area, began in February 2016.The company calls the facility the country’s first purpose-built Tier III data center.