In fact, splitter is named for the function of the device, coulper named for its working principle, splitter may be based coupler, and may be based on the waveguide or the separating element, coupler can be done either the splitter, but also can be done WDM, attenuator.
Optical coupler either split optical signals into multiple paths or combines multiple signals on one path. Optical signals are more complex than electrical signals, making optical couplers trickier to design than their electrical counterparts. Like electrical currents, a flow of signal carriers, in this case photons, comprise the optical signal. However, an optical signal does not flow through the receiver to the ground. Rather, at the receiver, a detector absorbs the signal flow. Multiple receivers, connected in a series, would receive no signal past the first receiver which would absorb the entire signal. Thus, multiple parallel optical output ports must divide the signal between the ports, reducing its magnitude. The number of input and output ports, expressed as an N x M configuration, characterizes a coupler. The letter N represents the number of input fibers, and M represents the number of output fibers. Fused couplers can be made in any configuration, but they commonly use multiples of two (2 x 2, 4 x 4, 8 x 8, etc.).
PLC Splitter is a device that split the fiber optic light into several parts by a certain ratio. The simplest couplers are PLC Splitters. These devices possess at least three ports but may have more than 32 for more complex devices. PLC Splitters are important passive components used in FTTX networks. But two kinds of fiber splitters are popular used, one is the traditional fused type PLC Splitter (FBT splitter), which features competitive prices; the other is PLC PLC Splitter, which is compact size and suit for density applications. Both of them have its advantages to suit for different requirement.
PLC Splitter typical parameter include input and output part cable length, splitting ratio, working wavelength and with what kind of fiber optic connectors. Just like fiber patch cable, fiber splitters are usually with 0.9mm, 2mm or 3mm cables. 0.9mm outer diameter cable is mostly used in stainless steel tube package PLC Splitters, while 2mm and 3mm cables are mostly used in box type package fiber splitters. Based on working wavelength difference there are single window and dual window PLC Splitters. And there are single mode fiber splitter and multimode fiber splitter. Typical connectors installed on the PLC Splitters are FC or SC type.
Optical coupler or PLC splitters are available in a selection of styles and sizes to separate or combine light with minimal loss. All couplers are produced employing a proprietary procedure that produces reliable, low-cost devices. They’re rugged and impervious to common high operating temperatures. Couplers can be fabricated with custom fiber lengths or with terminations of any type.