Wiki of Fiber Optic Amplifier
An optical amplifier is a device that amplifies an optical signal directly, without the need to first convert it to an electrical signal. An optical amplifier may be thought of as a laser without an optical cavity, or one in which feedback from the cavity is suppressed. Optical amplifiers are important in optical communication and laser physics.
Standard of Fiber Optic Amplifier
We know Fiber Optical Amplifiers that design from simple single stage to more complex multistage amplifiers with variable gain evolved as a different viator for system performance by equipment manufacturers and were initially made in house. More recently, the equipment vendors outsourced the design and manufacturing of amplifiers to the component vendors while requiring more than one source in order to control cost and delivery risk. This led to a pseudo-standardization of optical amplifiers with three or four vendors making amplifiers with compatible optical, mechanical,electrical hardware, and software specification.
Optical amplifier is dominated by erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and the leading suppliers have been shipping amplifiers for 10 years or longer. These companies include Oclaro, JDS Uniphase, and Furukawa. Ovum estimates these companies enjoy more than 60% market share of the nearly 200 dollars merchant erbium-doped fiber amplifier market in 2008. Well fiber-mart’s In-line Amplifier is on hot sale.
There are another 25 companies fighting for the remaining revenues. Twenty-one of the remaining optical amplifier companies that still exist today started between 1997 and 2003. All the amplifier suppliers in low cost regions started between 1998 and 2003. And only two new amplifier suppliers have entered the market since 2003, Manlight and Titan Photonics. The Figure showed the optical amplifier for next WDM networks
After nearly five years of focus on cost reduction and reduces progress in innovation. New direction in optical amplifier technology are becoming visible. These are in response to the major trends for the amplified optical networks of higher degree of connectivity and introduction of channels at higher data rates. Agility in amplifiers will be key to the successful deployment of ROADM networks requiring seamless provisioning and recovery in the event of failures. Features such as fast gain control at sub millisecond timescale and rapid spectral adjustments to counter the impairments due to higher order effects (spectral hole during[SHB], Raman spectral tilt in fiber, and polarization dependent loss [PDL]) of components) will be needed on an integrated basis across the whole system. Likewise, continuous demand to increase the OSNR of the signals to support ever increasing channel rates to 100 Gb/s and beyond over ultra-long-haul distances will require every dB to be made available, for example by deployment of hybrid Raman/EDFAs at every repeater site in the network. Another trend is the deployment of high-power cladding pumped amplifiers with watts of output power in the access network for distribution of video and other content. From the commercial standpoint, however, since the industry has become addicted to 15% to 20% price reduction year to year, these new features will have to be delivered at negligible incremental cost.
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