How to use an optical attenuator to test the sensitivity of a fiber optic transceiver?

Do you know how to use an optical attenuator to test the sensitivity of a fiber optic transceiver?In order to maximize the performance of our fiber optic transceivers, welcome to join our Fiber-Mart editors to see how to learn this skill.

Do you know how to use an optical attenuator to test the sensitivity of a fiber optic transceiver?In order to maximize the performance of our fiber optic transceivers, welcome to join our Fiber-Mart editors to see how to learn this skill. When the optical input power is within a certain range, the optical fiber receiver has the best performance. But how can we determine if the fiber optic transceiver will provide the best performance at the lowest optical input power? One commonly used method is to use an optical attenuator such as a diaphragm attenuator. Usually only two values are needed to complete the test. The process includes the following three steps.


1.Use a power meter to measure the optical output power of the fiber optic transmitter. Remember that industry standards define the optical input power of transmitters and receivers for specific network standards. If you are testing a 100BASE-FX transceiver,use a 100BASE-FX transmitter and the transmitter’s optical output power should be within the manufacturer’s data sheet.

2.Connect the transmitter to the receiver and verify it is operating at the maximum optical output power available from the transmitter. You need to test the receiver with the minimum optical input power that the receiver can accept, while the receiver still provides the best performance. To do this, you need to obtain the lowest light input power value from the manufacturer’s data sheet.


3.Calculate the level of attenuation required for the test. For example, the transmitter’s optical output power is -17 dBm, and the receiver’s minimum optical power level is -33 dBm. The difference between them is 16 dB. You can use a 16 dB bulkhead attenuator at the input of the receiver and retest the receiver. If the receiver still works, it is within specification.

Note: Light loss is not considered in the above example. Assuming the transmitter is located 10 kilometers from the receiver and the loss of the entire fiber link (including the interconnect) is 6 dB, then a 10 dB bulkhead attenuator should be used instead of 16 dB for your test.


The optical attenuator is a very important passive optical fiber device. It can attenuate the optical signal energy according to the user’s requirements. It can also be used to test the sensitivity of optical fiber transceivers. Fiber-Mart offers a full range of optical attenuators that bring convenience to users of optical communications.Any questions welcome to communicate with us:

The Best Introduction Of Fiber Optic Adapter

Fiber optic adapters form a small, but critical, part of the hardware used in an optical fiber cabling system. It is used for connecting fiber optic patch cords or pigtails together, often called as fiber optic adapter or fiber optic coupler.

Fiber optic adapters form a small, but critical, part of the hardware used in an optical fiber cabling system. It is used for connecting fiber optic patch cords or pigtails together, often called as fiber optic adapter or fiber optic coupler. Although they may shape differently, they have the same function. A fiber optic adapter allows fiber optic cables to be attached to each other singly or in a large network, permitting many devices to communicate at once. According to different shapes and structures, fiber optic adapters can be classified in several types, such as Bare fiber optic adapter, SC fiber optic adapter, LC fiber optic adapter, ST fiber optic adapter, FC fiber optic adapter, E2000 fiber optic adapter, hybrid fiber optic adapter and so on. And this article will particularly introduce these kinds of fiber optic adapters.
(1) Bare Fiber Optic Adapter
Bare fiber adapter is structured with optic fibers on one side and the adapter on the other side. It is used to link the bare optical fiber cable to fiber optic equipments. The adapter side is a connector that can plug into the equipment and enable a quick and easy termination for the optic fiber. Because this feature of the bare fiber adapters, they are widely used for emergency situation for fast and temporary fiber optic or urgent connection, testing barefiber, fiber on the reel, fiber before and after installation and so on. SC, FC, LC, ST bare fiber adapters is now available in the market.
(2) SC Fiber Optic Adapter
Covered with a rectangular shell, SC fiber optic adapter has the same configuration and size of the coupling pin cover as FC fiber optic adapter. From its structures, SC fiber optic adapter can be classified into simplex standard, duplex standard and shuttered standard. From its materials, metal and plastic are commonly used for SC fiber optic adapter. SC fiber optic adapter enables a high precision alignment with a low insertion, return loss and back reflection.
(3) LC Fiber Optic Adapter
LC fiber optic adapter adopts the modular jack latch mechanism which is easy to operate. Using the smaller pins and sleeves, LC fiber optic adapter greatly increases the density of fiber optic connector. There are three types of LC fiber optic adapter in simplex, duplex and quad structures.
(4) ST Fiber Optic Adapter
ST fiber optic adapter has a key snap-lock structure to ensure accuracy when connecting the cables together. The repeatability and durability of ST fiber optic adapter is improved by the metal key. With a precised ceramic or copper cover, ST fiber optic adapter can also keep a high optical and mechanical performance for a long time. It has two standards of simplex and duplex and uses the metal or plastic housing.


(5) FC Fiber Optic Adapter
FC fiber optic adapter uses a metal sleeve to strengthen its outer structure and can be fastened by a turnbuckle. It also adopts the ceramic pins as its butt end. Therefore, FC fiber optic adapter is able to sustain a stable optical and mechanical performance for a long time. It can be divided into square type, oval type and round type in single-mode and multimode versions. FC fiber optic adapter is easy to operate but sensitive to dust, so it has been enhanced today by using spherical butt end without changing its external structure.
(6) E2000 Fiber Optic Adapter
The Fiber Optic E2000 Adapter ensures a low loss broad-band data transmission. Through its compact design, mechanical robustness and reliability it suits perfect for critical applications expecially for MAN and WAN networks. The dimensions of new single adapter is the same as SC type, the same standardised cut-outs will then be used for all adapters which are compatible with SC standard. The E2000adapters are designed for connectors with PC and APC polishing method. E-2000 adapter integrated protective cap protects ferrule from dust and rules out any laser light emissions, the single type is equipped with metal internal shutter.
(7)MTP/MPO Fiber Optic Adapter
MPO type is a high density, high precision adapter which connection MPO patch cords. The network demands are increasing, but data center space is limited, so MPO will be the best choice because it can save more space and cost. MPO adapter made in both die-cast and thermoplastics, MPO adapters are precision manufactured to ensure intermateability with industry standard assemblies and connectors.
(8)Hybrid Fiber Optic Adapter
Hybrid fiber adapters use high precision ceramic sleeves because it can provide reliable ferrule mating and ensure low insertion loss and return loss during the connecting. This type of Optical fiber adapters is with compact sized and widely used for network environments integrating different configurations and telecommunications networks.
The above are common adapter styles, when you choosing fiber optic adapter, you should know the connector types, polish type, singlemode or multimode. If you are not sure which type meet your requires, feel free to contact us. KINSOM is a professional Fiber Optic Manufacturer, every thing can be customized in here!
If you have any need,Please feel free to contact my E-mail :


What are the interfaces and structures of fiber adapters?

Fiber optic adapters, also known as flanges or fiber optic connectors, are primarily used to connect two fiber optic connectors in a fiber cabling system, and are often assembled on various adapter panels and chassis.

When deploying a network, it is often necessary to connect two cables with the same connector or different connectors. Which product should you choose for fast cable connection and ensure stable performance? At this point, you need to use a fiber optic adapter with low insertion loss, durability, and repeatability. This article will mainly introduce the type of fiber adapter interface, structure, and the difference between fiber optic couplers and fiber adapter advantages and solutions.

Fiber Optic Adapter Definition

Fiber optic adapters, also known as flanges or fiber optic connectors, are primarily used to connect two fiber optic connectors in a fiber cabling system, and are often assembled on various adapter panels and chassis. Important fiber optic connection components are widely used in television networks, local area networks, video transmission, optical fiber communication systems, and FTTH fiber optic homes. Conventional fiber optic adapters are available in flanged and non-flanged versions, where the fiber optic adapter without a flange can be directly attached to a panel or tray, and the fiber optic adapter with a flange needs to be screwed.

Fiber Optic Adapter Interface Type

According to the diversity of fiber optic connectors, there are many types of interfaces for fiber optic adapters, as shown in the figure below. According to the same connector at both ends of the fiber adapter, its interface can be divided into six types: LC-LC, SC-SC, ST-ST, FC-FC, MPO-MPO, and E2000-E2000. According to the different connectors at both ends of the fiber adapter, its interface can be divided into six types: LC-SC, LC-ST, LC-FC, SC-FT, SC-FC, and FC-ST. These two ends have different connections. The adapter for the device is often referred to as a hybrid adapter. In addition, the use of fiber adapters for SC and FC interfaces is relatively more widely used in all interface types.

Fiber Optic Adapter Structure

As shown in the figure below, a common LC-LC duplex fiber adapter is used as an example. It is made of corrosion-resistant plastic, has good corrosion resistance and internal shading, and is made of stainless steel clips, full flanges, dust plugs. As well as high-precision ceramic bushings and other components, it can ensure that two connectors can be accurately connected while minimizing losses. It should be noted that the main function of the flange of the fiber optic adapter is to fix the adapter on the adapter panel. Therefore, a variety of fine and fixed flanges are particularly used for shooting.

Difference between fiber adapter and fiber coupler

As shown in the figure below, the design of the fiber adapter is very compact. It is a bridge between two cables that connect the same interface or two cables with different interfaces. The main reason for the fiber adapter and the fiber coupler is the connector type at both ends. Normally, if the two cables to be connected have the same type of connectors, they are called fiber couplers. If the two cables to be connected have different connectors, they are called fiber adapters. For example, a fiber optic adapter is used to connect the ST-ST connector. At this time, the connector at both ends of the fiber optic adapter is the same, so it can be called a fiber optic coupler. Otherwise, it is called a fiber adapter. However, fiber adapters have the same type of interface, but also have different types of interfaces. There are a total of twelve options.

Fiber Optic Adapter Benefits

Can provide a large number of high degree of matching and conversion adapters, including special male and female conversion optical adapter, with low insertion loss, good interchangeability, good repeatability, high temperature, acid and alkali resistant and stable performance. The following are more advantages of fiber optic adapters.

1.High protective dust plug
Each fiber adapter is equipped with a corresponding high protective dust cover, which can be kept clean, 100% to avoid contamination of the adapter and the cable by dust, and greatly reduce the failure rate.
2. Connect the cable + convenient and simple
It is possible to connect two identical connectors or different connectors. When two optical cables need to be connected, only two optical cables must be aligned with the ceramic sleeve and inserted separately.
3 high-precision ceramic casing
The fiber optic adapter uses a ceramic sleeve imported from abroad and adopts a high-density production process to achieve high-precision fast connection of the fiber end face, which is definitely your ideal choice.
4. Compact design and easy operation
Optical fiber adapters are lighter in weight, compact in design, easy to operate, and user-friendly to help you easily connect and remove cables.

Optical fiber adapter plays an increasingly important role in optical fiber connection. It is an inconspicuous and critical connection component. It has strong practicability and high cost performance. It is widely used, especially for television networks, local area networks, video transmission, and optical fiber. For applications such as communication systems and FTTH fiber-to-the-home applications, fiber optic adapters are a good choice and solution! If you have any fiber optic adapter requirements, please contact us

Waterproof Fiber Cables

Waterproof fiber optic patch cables are designed to fit for outdoor connection applications. The strong PU jacket and singlemode APC armored structure of cable provide 1Gigabit data transfer speeds in high bandwidth application.

With the development of modern communication industry, optical fiber has become an increasingly important communication line medium because of its advantages such as wide frequency band, low loss, long transmission distance and anti-electromagnetic interference. In metropolitan area networks and campus networks, the application of outdoor optical cables is becoming more and more common. For outdoor optical cables, in addition to bandwidth, loss, and other transmission performance, another very important technical indicator is the optical cable’s water blocking performance.

Waterproof fiber optic patch cables are designed to fit for outdoor connection applications. The strong PU jacket and singlemode APC armored structure of cable provide 1Gigabit data transfer speeds in high bandwidth application, up to 5 times faster than standard 9/125um fiber patch cable. What’s more, it’s IP67MPO cable connectors have an extremely rugged, protective rubber coating with integral anti-kink strain-relief boot and a rubber-coated, metal, latching cap, attached by a steel lanyard. When mated or capped, the connection is environmentally sealed up to IP65. They can resist high temperature and suit to use in harsh environment, and ideal for use in a variety of applications, including Fiber to the Antenna (FTTA) and Fiber to the Home(FTTH).


Like choosing any other fiber optic patch cables, the connector type, fiber count, fiber type (single-mode or multimode), polish type, cable length and cable jacket are factors that should be considered as well. When buying waterproof fiber optic patch cords, the IP (International Protection or Ingress Protection) rating is an important parameter. Knowing the IP code can help you find your wanted waterproof cable.


IP rating system is a classification showing the degrees of protection from solid objects and liquids. IP rating codes do not include hyphens or spaces, and consist of the letters IP followed by one or two figures. The first number refers to the degree of protection against the entry of foreign solid objects, such as dust. These protection levels range from 0 to 6. The second number of the IP code refers to the degrees of protection against moisture/liquids, which are raging from 0 to 8. The first and second number of the IP code can be replaced by the letter “6″or7”.Norally called IP67.

There are two types of IP67MPO weatherproof connector: IP67MPO plug (with locating pins) and IP67MPO Socket (without locating pins), the plug of one cable and the socket of the other cable can be connected to extend the cable length. See blow:

MPO Component Details

Features& Application

features & Application




When you used Waterproof fiber optic patch cables,you can use it as a reference in choosing a waterproof cable, but you should also consider other factors according to your specific applications. Fiber-mart have kinds of fiber optic patch cables for you choose. Continue reading “Waterproof Fiber Cables”

Multimode fiber promises to replace expensive single mode fiber

Optical fiber is the backbone of modern communications. Singlemode fiber dominates long distance applications because of its reliability; however,This fiber has an internal diameter of only 10 micrometers (us) and is very expensive.

It is well known that optical fibers can be classified into single-mode fibers and multi-mode fibers depending on the modulus of the transmission point. The core of a singlemode fiber is relatively thin, and the transmission frequency bandwidth, capacity, and transmission distance are long, but because it requires a laser source, higher cost. Multimode fiber such as Multimode attenuator、Multimode copper cable、OM1/OM2 Multimode PVC jack、Multimode indoor cable、Multimode  MPO Cassette etc.

As fiber deployment has become mainstream, Multimode fiber has attracted much attention, currently Russian and Finnish researchers collaborate on a proof-of-concept program to further expand the use of multimode fibers with larger core diameters; researchers use high-power lasers and anisotropic materials and expect to develop optical transmissions Maintain coherence of the fiber. Maintaining the coherence of light is a necessary condition for realizing quantum computers and sensor networks. It also helps multimode fibers to replace expensive singlemode fibers in more remote communications applications.

Optical fiber is the backbone of modern communications. Singlemode fiber dominates long distance applications because of its reliability; however,This fiber has an internal diameter of only 10 micrometers (us) and is very expensive. The lower cost multimode fiber has an inner diameter of 100us, which is currently used for short-distance communication. Generally, it supports distances of 1,000 meters and 1-Gbit/s transmission speed.


Fig. 1: Lateral distribution of light radiation intensity in the output beam (Data source: MIPT)

Fibers that can maintain coherence are more advantageous than semiconductor sensors because they require little power. The result comes from the inability of distributed sensor systems to function. In addition, these fibers can be used not only in high-power laser systems,  but also as sensors because changes in polarization characteristics result from changes in the environment that they sense accurately.

Protecting optical fibers has advantages over semiconductor sensors because they require little power and can handle,The result of a distributed sensor system. Not only can they be used in high power laser systems, but the use as sensors comes from the observed fact that changes in their polarization properties make it possible to accurately sense the changes caused by environmental factors.


Figure 2: The figure shows the diameter of the outer protective layer along the length of the three tapered fibers (left side) and its core diameter (right side). illustration A cross-section of an anisotropic fiber structure is shown; the fiber is composed of a core, an oval inner protective layer and an outer protective layer. (Data Source: MIPT)
Fiber lasers use optical resonators to reflect light back and forth, thereby causing lasers. At present, this laser is only finished
Using the basic mode (upper left in Figure 1), the power is limited to the 10 nm fiber capacity. Increasing the transmission power of large lasers leads to uncontrolled variations in the refractive index of the fiber, causing parasitic nonlinear effects. The solution adopted by Russian and Finnish researchers was to change the core and the inner protective layer (Figure 2). Russian and Finnish researchers have used this technique to confirm the concept that less than 1% of the energy transmitted through high-power lasers is lost in the 100us fiber. Researchers have completely preserved the polarization properties of optical fibers by creating an internal protective layer for the anisotropic properties of large optical fibers (indicating that they propagate only in the length direction because the internal protective layer is oval).

Fiber-Mart offers a wide range of options for multimode fiber optics, professional design, custom services, and portability. For customized multimode fiber packaging, please feel free to contact us:

The introduction to EDFA(Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier)

EDFA is an optical repeater device that is used to boost the intensity of optical signals being carried through a fiber optic communications system.It was invented in 1987, EDFA exhibits its gain in the C-band and L-band

EDFA is an optical repeater device that is used to boost the intensity of optical signals being carried through a fiber optic communications system.It was invented in 1987, EDFA exhibits its gain in the C-band and L-band, where telecomputer optical fibers show its lowest loss in the entire optical telecommunication wavelength bands.

What does Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) mean?

EDFAs are used as a booster, inline, and pre-amplifier in an optical transmission line, as schematically shown in Figure 1. The booster amplifier is placed just after the transmitter to increase the optical power launched to the transmission line. The inline amplifiers are placed in the transmission line, compensating the attenuation induced by the optical fiber. The pre-amplifier is placed just before the receiver, such that sufficient optical power is launched to the receiver.

Figure 1

It is used in the telecommunications field and in various types of research fields .An EDFA is “doped” with a material called erbium. The term “doping” refers to the process of using chemical elements to facilitate results through the manipulation of electrons.

How it Works

An optical fiber is doped with the rare earth element erbium so that the glass fiber can absorb light at one frequency and emit light at another frequency. An external semiconductor laser couples light into the fiber at infrared wavelengths of either 980 or 1480 nanometers. This action excites the erbium atoms. Additional optical signals at wavelengths between 1530 and 1620 nanometers enter the fiber and stimulate the excited erbium atoms to emit photons at the same wavelength as the incoming signal. This action amplifies a weak optical signal to a higher power, effecting a boost in the signal strength.

Before the invention of EDFA, a long optical fiber transmission line required a complicated optical-to-electrical (O-E) and E-O converter for signal regeneration. The use of EDFA has eliminated the need for such O-E and E-O conversion, significantly simplifying the system. This is especially of use in a submarine optical transmission, where more than a hundred repeaters may be needed to construct one link. The TPC-5CN (Trans-Pacific Cable 5 Cable Network), started its operation in 1996, is the first submarine optical fiber network which employed EDFA.

The EDFA rate, or amplification window, is based on the optical wavelength range of amplification and is determined by the dopant ions’ spectroscopic properties, the optical fiber glass structure and the pump laser wavelength and power. As ions are sent into the optical fiber glass, energy levels broaden, which results in amplification window broadening and a light spectrum with a broad gain bandwidth of fiber optic amplifiers used for wavelength division multiplex communications. This single amplifier may be used with all optic fiber channel signals when signal wavelengths are in the amplification window. Optical isolator devices are placed on either side of the EDFA and serve as diodes, which prevent signals from traveling in more than one direction.

EDFAs are usually limited to no more than 10 spans covering a maximum distance of approximately 800 kilometers (km). Longer distances require an intermediate line repeater to retime and reshape the signal and filter accumulated noise from various light dispersion forms from bends in the optical fiber. In addition, EDFAs cannot amplify wavelengths shorter than 1525 nanometers (nm).

Fiber-MART Optical Amplifier & EDFA

Optical Amplifiers provided by Fiber-Mart are designed for all network segments (access, metro, regional and long haul) and applications (telecom, cable and enterprise). We have a series of Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) optical amplifiers, including DWDM EDFA for DWDM systems, CATV EDFA for CATV applications, SDH EDFA for SDH networks. In addition, we can also provide Raman Fiber Amplifiers, DCM EDFA with mid-stage access, and high power amplifiers such as EYDFA.

In a word , Optical Amplifier & EDFA enables the optical transmission over long distance by amplifying signals. For more information, please visit Fiber-MART.COM .pls not hesitate to contact us for any requirements :


Optical Amplifier & EDFA
Optical Amplifier & EDFA
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